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  • Everything You Need to Know About Fallopian Tube Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    Fallopian tube cancer or tubal cancer is a rare form of cancer in women associated with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene mutations. It develops in the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries and the uterus. Ignoring the early symptoms can eventually cause the removal of the uterus and the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Our focus should be on understanding how fallopian cancer begins and recent advancements in its diagnosis and treatment, especially in the early stages.


    What is Fallopian Tube Cancer? 

    The fallopian tubes are part of the female reproductive system on each side of the pelvis. Fallopian tube cancer usually begins in the tube or oviduct gland cells that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. These eggs are released each month and pass out as menstrual blood if not fertilised by sperm. Studies have reported that fallopian cancer cases are rare, with only 1,500-2,000 cases reported globally to date.


    Symptoms of Fallopian Tube Cancer 

    Fallopian tube cancer symptoms are difficult to detect early and easy to dismiss as nothing serious. It is always worthwhile to consult a gynaecologist in case of irregular menstruation, any abnormalities related to the reproductive system, or if you have a history of cancer risk in the family. The symptoms of fallopian tube cancer usually are:

    • Vaginal bleeding not associated with menstruation
    • Irregular periods
    • Watery or white vaginal discharge that contains blood
    • Back pain
    • Bleeding from the vagina after menopause
    • Swelling in the lower abdomen
    • Pain in the lower belly
    • Constipation
    • Experiencing pain during intercourse
    • Fatigue
    • Frequent urination

    Causes of Fallopian Tube Cancer

    The causes behind fallopian tube cancer are still not clear, but the cancer typically starts somewhere else in the body before spreading to the fallopian tubes as metastatic cancer. Experts say fallopian tube cancer may account for up to 70% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. The exact reason is yet to be ascertained, but women who have never given birth or breastfed a child post-delivery may have a higher chance of developing it. The risk factors behind fallopian tube cancer are:
    • Women aged between 50 and 60 years are at a higher risk
    • Post-menopause conditions can also lead to this disease; if not treated properly it triggers the cells of the female reproductive system to mutate
    • Early menstruation (before age 12) or late menopause
    • Inherited gene mutations (such as BRCA)
    • A family history of ovarian or breast cancer
    • Infertility or having no pregnancies
    • Obesity during early adulthood

    How is Fallopian Tube Cancer Diagnosed? 

    It can be difficult to diagnose fallopian tube cancer as the symptoms are not discernible in the initial stages. Even so, the doctor will first enquire about any suspected symptoms based on medical history and conduct a thorough physical examination. Subsequently, the gynecologic oncologist may recommend any of the following procedures:

    1. Biopsy: In this procedure, tissue in the affected area is surgically removed and sent to a pathologist to determine the presence of cancerous cells. This method can stop such cells from spreading to nearby organs. 
    2. CA 125 blood test: This test measures the level of CA 125 protein that sometimes indicates the presence of ovarian cancer in the blood.
    3. Pelvic examination: The doctor inserts a speculum into the vagina to inspect the cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes for any lump. The doctor may ask for a Pap test, whereby a thin tool is used to scrape some cells from the cervix, and the sample is sent to a pathology lab to check for cancer cells.
    4. Ultrasound: In this method, high-energy sound waves are used to create echoes that form a picture of the pelvic area tissues.
    5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: This powerful technique uses magnets and radio waves to take pictures of the fallopian tubes.
    6. Computed Tomography (CT) scan: This technique uses a powerful X-ray that takes detailed pictures of the interior body parts.

    How is Fallopian Tube Cancer Treated? 

    The treatment for fallopian tube cancer is similar to ovarian cancer treatment, through two main methods—surgery and chemotherapy. 

    Oncologist surgeons try to remove the fallopian tubes and the uterus, cervix, ovaries, and other affected areas. Chemotherapy is suggested if surgery cannot remove all of the cancer —HIPEC (hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy). This procedure involves placing heated chemotherapy in the fallopian tube area that removes the tumour and reduces the recurrence chance. The chemotherapy drugs commonly used to kill cancer cells are carboplatin and paclitaxel. Targeted therapy treatment is mainly used to identify and attack specific cancer cells using two types of targeted therapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Researchers and scientists are still looking for ways to cure fallopian tube cancer completely, and several clinical trials are underway.

    With cancer comes the burden of hefty treatment costs that eventually exhaust people’s lifetime savings, let alone the tension and anxiety of what is to become of a loved one. Hence, a health insurance plan that ensures adequate health coverage and helps to settle cancer treatment costs is highly recommended for everyone. For one, you can explore the ICICI Lombard health insurance policy and learn about the amazing benefits it provides to the insured.


    Pregnancy After Fallopian Tube Cancer 

    Women affected with fallopian tube cancer may fail at childbearing, but proper diagnosis and adequate treatment can address this issue. However, pregnancy becomes difficult if the patient is in the fourth stage of cancer, as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus are affected by cancer cells.

    The treatment procedure comprises: 

    • Surgery to remove ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus can negate pregnancy chances forever.
    • Chemotherapy can also damage the fallopian tube by inducing early menopause. 
    • However, pregnancy is possible if both ovaries are removed and the embryo and eggs are frozen before surgery. Consulting a doctor is highly recommended before conceiving to avoid any sort of risk during pregnancy.
  • Everything You Need to Know About Thymus Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    What is thymus cancer? This is a common question exasperated patients ask their doctors. Let us find out what thymus cancer is and gain knowledge about this rare cancer type. The thymus is a small organ in the upper chest above the heart and behind the sternum (breastbone). Thymus cancer occurs when cells mutate, become malignant, and grow out of control. This cancer type is common among middle-aged adults and individuals 70 years or older.


    What is Thymus Cancer? 

    The thymus is a small gland that plays a vital function in maintaining the body’s immune system. The thymus produces white blood cells called lymphocytes that protect us from viral and bacterial infections. The two main types of thymus cancer are thymoma carcinoma and thymic carcinoma. Thymoma cancer is more common, grows slowly, and can spread to other body parts. Thymic carcinoma develops more quickly and also spreads to other body parts. 


    Symptoms of Thymus Cancer 

    Most thymus cancer patients do not show symptoms until the tumour grows large enough to start pressing on nearby organs or blood vessels in the chest. The symptoms can include persistent cough, difficulty breathing, chest pain, drooping eyelids, loss of appetite, double vision, dizziness, low red blood cell count, and unexplained weight loss. Many people develop an autoimmune disorder called myasthenia gravis (weakening of skeletal muscles) with the onset of this thymus tumour. 

    How is Thymus Cancer Diagnosed? 

    A thymus tumour can be detected with imaging tests such as chest X-ray, CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan, and blood test. The doctor will enquire the patient about their health history, symptoms, risk factors, and family history regarding the disease. Once the tumour is surgically removed, the surgeon sends it to the pathologist who examines the tumour for cancerous growth. Doctors sometimes inject a special dye called contrast medium on the patient before the scan for clearer details of the image. 

    The TNM staging system is used to assess the various stages of thymus cancer, from stage 1 to stage 4, based on the size of the tumour (T), spread to lymph nodes (N), and the indication of metastasis (M), or its spread to other parts of the body. Stage 1 is non-invasive, while stage 4 indicates the cancer’s spread to distant organs such as the liver or kidneys. Diagnosis is most critical as it helps healthcare professionals determine the ways to treat the cancer.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Pancreatic Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    Your pancreas typically produces essential enzymes that help break down the food you consume. The other role it is involved in includes releasing hormones that regulate the amount of sugar that should remain in your bloodstream. Understandably, you will experience significant adverse effects when the pancreas gets affected by cancer cells. Swift and appropriate action may help ease pancreatic cancer symptoms, boost your emotional state, and enhance your chances of recovery.


    What is Pancreatic Cancer?

    This type of cancer develops when your pancreatic cells lose their normal functioning power, leading to uncontrolled growth. This abnormal increase in cell numbers results in the accumulation of cancerous cells, forming a tumour mass. These malignant tumours indicate their capacity to grow and spread to distant areas of your body. As the tumour progresses, it can hinder your pancreas' proper functioning, invade nearby blood vessels and adjacent organs, and eventually spread to remote body locations through metastasis. Pancreatic cancer is detected late, often when it has spread rapidly, and has a poor prognosis.


    Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer

    So, what are the symptoms of pancreatic cancer? You can take appropriate medical action if you know them. The following are some symptoms to look out for:

    • Chills, sweats, and unexplained fever
    • Stool may float, seem oily, smell particularly bad, and have an odd colour as your body is not digesting fats properly
    • Experience discomfort in your upper abdomen, back, or arms as the cancer grows and puts pressure on nearby structures
    • Feel a burning sensation in your stomach or other discomfiture in your gastrointestinal tract
    • Loss of weight for no apparent reason, which can progress rapidly
    • Notice your stomach feeling bloated
    • Feel nauseous and tend to vomit
    • Painful swelling in the arm or leg can occur from blood clots

    Causes and Risk Factors of Pancreatic Cancer

    By knowing what is pancreatic cancer and its causes and risk factors, you can take adequate steps to stay healthy. The following is a commonly known list of causes and risk factors of pancreatic cancer.

    Men are more often diagnosed with cancer compared to women. Having diabetes for a prolonged period or developing new-onset diabetes in adulthood can raise the risk of cancer. Smoking tobacco can double or triple your chances of developing cancer. Alcohol abuse, leading to repeated pancreatic inflammation, also contributes to the risk. 

    Your risk is higher if your family has a history of cancer or genetic conditions linked to other cancers. Genetic counselling may be worth considering if your family history involves cancers with shared genetic mutations.

    Your likelihood of developing cancer rises as you get older. Most pancreatic cancer patients are over 45 years old, with 90% older than 55 and 70% older than 65. Black individuals have a higher risk of cancer than Asian, Hispanic, or White individuals. Those of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage also face an elevated risk.

    A diet high in fat and obesity are linked to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. 

    Types of Pancreatic Cancer

    The following are some of the most commonly known types of pancreatic cancer.

    Endocrine pancreatic tumours, also termed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) or islet cell tumours, emerge from the endocrine pancreas, wherein hormones such as insulin are produced and released into the bloodstream. 

    Cancer that starts from acinar cells at the tips of the ducts producing pancreatic juices is typically detected more often in younger individuals than in adenocarcinomas. This cancer type grows slower and usually has a more positive outlook. 

    Pancreatoblastoma often affects children and is sometimes linked to genetic conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Regarding exocrine pancreatic cancer, more than 80% are adenocarcinomas, mainly ductal adenocarcinomas. These cancers form in the cells lining the pancreatic ducts. 

    Pancreatic Lymphoma can develop in various parts of the body, given the widespread nature of the lymphatic system. Cystic tumours result in fluid-filled sacs within the pancreas. 

    While most pancreatic cysts are harmless, certain cystic tumours can transition into malignant growths. Pancreatic cancer belongs to the exocrine category; it develops from cells that produce pancreatic digestive juices.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Stomach Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    Our stomach plays a vital role in digesting food. Situated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the stomach is just one part of the long tube that essentially begins at our mouth and ends at the anus, the exit point for waste. Enzymes and digestive juices combine to break down food, easing its movement into the small intestine. Hence, the onset of stomach cancer can cause significant discomfort and emotional stress by disrupting the stomach’s functions. Detecting stomach cancer in its early stages can help overcome it and significantly improve the overall quality of life.


    What is Stomach Cancer?

    Gastric cancer, often known as stomach cancer, involves the abnormal growth of cells that usually begins in the stomach lining. Stomach cancer can develop in any part of your stomach. Most cases of stomach cancer develop in the main section of your stomach, referred to as the stomach body.
    Lymphomas, or cancers that originate from immune cells called lymphocytes, can begin in your stomach's wall. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) can start from primitive cells in your stomach's wall called interstitial cells of Cajal. Some GISTs tend to invade nearby areas or metastasise. Roughly, 90% to 95% of stomach cancer instances are categorised as adenocarcinomas. These cancer types originate from the epithelial cells that make up the innermost lining of your stomach, called the mucosa.

    Symptoms of Stomach Cancer

    The following are some of the common gastric cancer symptoms.
    • Your bowel habits might change, either with more frequent trips or having difficulty passing stool
    • You might feel fullness or a bloated sensation after eating
    • Your desire to eat might decrease
    • You might sense food getting stuck in your throat when eating
    • You could experience pain or uneasiness in your stomach area
    • You might feel discomfort or a burning sensation in your upper abdomen
    In more advanced stages of the tumour in stomach, you might experience more severe stomach tumour symptoms, such as:
    • A possibility of vomiting blood or noticing blood in your stool
    • Loss of a significant amount of weight without any apparent reason
    • Feelings of extreme tiredness and lack of energy


    Causes of Stomach Cancer

    Several of the following factors can trigger tumour in stomach.
    • Inheriting genetic mutations such as those causing familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer heightens the likelihood of cancer
    • A family history of stomach cancer increases your susceptibility
    • A diet rich in smoked, pickled, and salted foods while lacking in fresh fruits and vegetables increases your risk
    • If you have had a partial gastrectomy for ulcer disease, your risk can be higher, especially after about two decades
    • Remember that regular alcohol consumption is generally linked to a greater likelihood of cancer
    • If you are aged 60 and above, you become more vulnerable to this type of cancer

    How is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    The following are some of the common methods used to diagnose gastric cancer.

    Utilising X-rays from various angles, a CT scan constructs detailed 3D images of your body's interior. A contrast medium (dye) may be used to enhance image clarity, which can be either swallowed or injected into a vein to improve image quality. An MRI employs magnetic fields to create detailed body images.

    Endoscopic Ultrasound combines endoscopy with ultrasound imaging to visualise internal organs. Ultrasound waves create images that help doctors assess the extent of the cancer spread to nearby organs and tissues.

    Laparoscopy is a popular minor surgical procedure that involves inserting a laparoscope into your abdomen to check for cancer spread in the abdominal lining or liver. These areas might not be easily detected by CT or PET scans. In PET-CT Scan, a radioactive sugar substance is introduced into your body. Energy-consuming cells, including cancer cells, absorb this substance. A PET-CT scan combines PET and CT scans to create images revealing areas of active energy use.

    For a barium swallow test, you need to consume a liquid containing barium to enhance the visibility of abnormalities during X-ray imaging. A biopsy procedure typically involves removing a small tissue sample for microscopic examination. While other tests might suggest the presence of cancer, only a biopsy procedure can confirm the diagnosis definitively.

    Your doctor examines your body's interior by using a gastroscope or endoscope, a flexible tube with a light. A tissue sample can be taken for biopsy to detect signs of cancer.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Heart Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    In the realm of medical anomalies, heart cancer stands as a rarity that needs our attention. Understanding its nuances is crucial for early detection and effective management. This blog delves into the depths of heart cancer-from its causes to its methods of diagnosis.


    What is heart cancer?

    Heart cancer is scientifically known as a malignant primary cardiac tumour. It is a rare form of cancer originating within the heart's soft tissues. Malignant heart tumours can either be sarcomas, originating in the heart's connective tissue, or other types like primary cardiac lymphoma and pericardial mesothelioma. Due to its rarity and complex symptoms, heart cancer demands heightened awareness and a comprehensive understanding of early detection and effective management.


    Symptoms of heart cancer

    Recognizing heart cancer symptoms can be challenging, primarily due to its rarity and manifestations that often mimic those of more common heart conditions. The symptoms are influenced by various factors, including the tumour's size, location, and impact on the heart's structure and function.

    Malignant heart tumours, originating from the heart or spreading to it from other organs, can cause many distressing symptoms. As these tumours grow, they can invade vital heart structures, disrupt blood flow, and impair cardiac function.

    Blood flow obstruction is one of the main symptoms associated with heart cancer. Tumours that grow within heart chambers or affect heart valves can obstruct blood flow. It can result in shortness of breath during physical exertion. Depending on the specific location, it can mimic conditions like valve stenosis, causing symptoms such as chest pain and dizziness.

    Another symptom is heart muscle dysfunction. When tumours infiltrate the heart's muscular walls, they can compromise its ability to pump blood effectively. It can result in shortness of breath, swollen legs, chest pain, weakness, and fatigue, resembling heart failure or cardiomyopathy.

    Problems with the conduction system, the network cells and signals that maintain your beating heart, are also signs of heart cancer. Tumours in the heart muscle near the conduction system can disrupt the heart's rhythm. It can lead to irregular heartbeats, palpitations, and even fainting spells. Severe cases can cause heart block, where the atria and ventricles beat independently.

    Embolus formation is another sign in which tumour fragments or blood clots from the heart travel to other body parts and block blood vessels. Depending on the location of the embolus, this can cause symptoms like chest pain, limb pain, or even stroke-like symptoms.

    Some heart tumours may produce symptoms similar to infections, such as fever, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss, and joint pain.

    Given the complexity of heart cancer symptoms and the need for precise diagnosis, it's crucial to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any unusual cardiac symptoms. Early detection and proper management are vital to improving outcomes and effective treatment.


    Causes of heart cancer        

    When it comes to understanding what causes heart cancer, doctors believe it is sporadic, making it challenging to conduct extensive research into its origins. However, certain risk factors have been associated with the development of cardiac tumours.

    Age appears to play a role, as certain tumours are more prevalent in specific age groups. Additionally, hereditary factors can contribute to cancer, with a few types of heart tumours showing a propensity to run in families. Genetic cancer syndromes, characterised by mutations in DNA, have been linked to certain types of cardiac tumours, particularly in children.

    While some connections have been made between damaged immune systems and specific types of cardiac cancer, a comprehensive understanding of the causative factors is still under exploration. Continued research is essential to unravel the complexities surrounding heart cancer's origins and develop effective preventive measures and treatments.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Uterine Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    Uterine cancer is one of the most common cancers occurring in females and is not talked about often enough. This form of cancer impacts many women, from all walks of life. Whether you’ve just recently been diagnosed or have family members who have been affected by it for some time now – we are here to provide all the information you need regarding this disease so that you feel empowered to take steps towards your treatment journey.

    What is uterine cancer?

    So what is uterine cancer? Uterine cancer refers to the cancer originating either from the middle or innermost layer of the uterus. The cancer that arises from the innermost layer is the more prevalent form, while that originating from the middle layer of the uterus is rare. The uterine cancer is specified as:
    ● Endometrial Cancer – Developed from the innermost layer of the uterus known as the endometrium, that is shed during menstruation cycle.
    ● Uterine Sarcoma – Developed from the middle muscular layer of the uterus known as myometrium that expands during pregnancy and contracts during labor.

    Symptoms of Uterine Cancer

    Ever wondered what are the symptoms of uterine cancer? The most common symptoms of uterine cancer are inter-menstrual bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding. Abnormal bleeding and abnormal menstruation cycle are also common symptoms along with pelvic distress. Other major symptoms include lower abdominal pain, dysuria (difficult urination), and nausea. In higher uterine cancer stages, in which the cancer has spread to other body parts, the additional symptoms include – pale appearance due to heavy blood loss, weight loss, abnormal bowel & bladder habits, and anorexia (loss of appetite).


    Causes of Uterine Cancer

    The biological reason for uterus cancer includes higher exposure of uterine cells to estrogen hormone. Estrogen is the hormone responsible for proliferation of uterine cells so higher exposure of this hormone is known to cause more uterine cell divisions that ultimately cause carcinoma. Besides, it is also associated with presence of obesity, type II diabetes (T2DM), early menarche (menstruation initiation), late menopause, PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), nulliparity (women who has never given birth or carried a child), and infertility.

    Risk factors associated for uterine cancer

    The risk factors for uterine cancer include those factors that can increase the chances of getting this cancer. While the risk factors might not directly cause cancer, it can surely increase the probability of it occurring. On the other hand, the absence of a risk factor does not mean one will not get uterine cancer at all. The risk factors are as follows:

    ● Higher age: women older than 50 years are at a higher risk of getting uterine cancer.
    ● Obesity and other metabolic syndromes: More than 50% of endometrial cancer is associated with obesity. This is because fatty tissues are known to convert androgens into estrogens (sex hormones), which increase the risk of cancer. Similarly, other metabolic syndromes including type 2 diabetes are associated with higher risk for uterine cancer.
    ● Presence of other cancers: Presence of cancers like ovarian cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer can enhance the chances of getting uterine cancer
    ● Familial history: Uterine cancer has been found to be associated with familial history. A genetic syndrome called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome running in family shows higher risk of uterine cancer in women of ch families.
    ● Certain anti-cancer therapies: Therapies involving certain medications used to treat other forms of cancers can increase the risk of uterine cancer. For example, tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer, is linked with an elevated risk of developing uterine cancer. Radiation therapy used to treat cancer in the pelvic or lower abdominal region is also associated with higher risk of developing this cancer.
    ● Hormone Replacement Therapies (HRT): HRT done with estrogen is associated with higher risk of uterine cancer development hormone in postmenopausal women. However, it is seen that if it is given along with progesterone hormone then the risk is comparatively lower.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Mouth Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 13, 2023

    Are you worried about your oral health? Have you been experiencing unexplained mouth pain or sore areas inside your mouth? Then it’s possible that you could be at risk for developing mouth cancer. In this article, we’ll answer all your questions about mouth cancer, such as “What is mouth cancer”, “What causes mouth cancer”, and much more, so that you have peace of mind when it comes to your overall wellness.


    What is Mouth cancer?

    So, what is oral cancer? Oral, or mouth cancer, is a severe disease that affects the lips, tongue, gums, and other areas in the mouth. It starts as a small lesion or bump that may initially go unnoticed, but it can rapidly grow and spread to other body parts. One of the most alarming things about mouth cancer is that it can be quite the challenge to detect in its early stages, but there are certain symptoms to be aware of, which we will discuss in the next section.


    Symptoms of Mouth cancer

    It’s important to know what are the symptoms of mouth cancer, as it helps to self-assess the disease and we can seek a doctor’s consultation immediately to confirm whether we have this type of cancer or not. The following symptoms are:
    ● A sore on our lip or mouth that won’t heal after taking treatment
    ● A mass or lump anywhere in the mouth
    ● Bleeding gum and loosening of teeth
    ● Pain or difficulty in swallowing
    ● Trouble wearing dentures
    ● A lump in the neck region
    ● An earache that won’t go away
    ● Unexplained weight loss
    ● Lower lip, face, neck, or chin numbness
    ● White, red and white, or red patches on the inner lining of one’s mouth and tongue
    ● Hoarseness in voice and chronic sore throat
    ● Swelling and pain in the jaw or stiffness while opening the mouth
    ● Tongue pain
    ● Excessive salivation
    ● Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
    In case you notice any of these changes in your mouth or nearby areas, you should contact your health care professional immediately to diagnose oral cancer disease at the initial stages.


    Causes And Risk Factors Of Mouth Cancer

    Cancer occurs when a genetic alteration causes cells to grow uncontrollably, forming a tumour. Over time, these cells can spread to other areas of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma is responsible for approximately 90% of mouth cancers, originating in the squamous cells that line the lips and inside of the mouth.
    Although it is not completely clear what causes oral cancer, there are some factors that can increase a person's chances of developing this disease. These include:
    ● Tobacco use
    ● Heavy alcohol consumption
    ● Exposure to the human papillomavirus (HPV)
    Apart from this, there are other factors that could increase your risk of getting mouth cancer, such as:
    ● Exposure to UV light from the sun
    ● Past radiation therapy for the neck or head
    ● Prolonged exposure to certain chemicals like sulfuric acid or formaldehyde
    ● Poor oral hygiene
    ● A weak immune system
    ● A family history of the disease
    Additionally, age and gender can also play a role in the development of mouth cancer. By knowing the potential causes and risk factors of mouth cancer, individuals can take proactive steps to minimise their risk of this deadly disease.


    Stages of Mouth cancer

    There are four stages of oral cancer:
    ● Stage 1: The cancerous cells formed in the lining of the oral cavity start invading nearby cells. Generally, the size of the tumour is 2 cm or smaller and 5 mm deep. In this stage, cancer hasn’t spread to the surrounding areas.
    ● Stage 2: The tumour spread size is 2-4 cm and 10 mm deep. In this stage 1 cancer hasn’t spread.
    ● Stage 3: In this stage of mouth cancer the bruise becomes more than 4 cm in size and 10 mm in depth. The cancerous cells in this stage start invading one or two lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
    ● Stage 4: At this last stage, the tumours are any size and the cancer cells have spread to nearby tissue and organs like jaw muscles, skulls, neck, lymph nodes, etc. This stage is also called metastasis, or advanced stage.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Bladder Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 12, 2023

    Bladder cancer, although still unknown in India, has emerged as a significant health concern. As the name suggests, it occurs when cells in the bladder become cancerous, and if left untreated, can have severe complications. The good news is that there is plenty of information available to help understand this form of cancer and its treatment options. Whether you or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with bladder cancer, or if you simply want to learn more about this disease, it's important to have a basic understanding of what it means. In this article, we will understand what is bladder cancer, what are the symptoms of bladder cancer, and its causes. We will also understand the types of bladder cancer, the risks associated with it, as well as the process of diagnosing bladder cancer and its treatment. We will also look at its treatment, outlook towards it, and how to prevent it.


    What is bladder cancer?

    Bladder cancer develops when there is growth and multiplication of abnormal cells in the bladder. These abnormal cells in the bladder have the tendency to convert into a tumour and have the ability to spread to other organs in the body.

    Other forms of cancer have the potential to extend to the bladder, but the name of the cancer is known by the organ from where it originates. This severe disease is the seventh most common form of cancer worldwide.


    Symptoms of bladder cancer

    So, what are the symptoms of bladder cancer? A number of varying symptoms can be identified among individuals such as:

    • Presence of blood in the urine, making its appearance bright red or rust-colored, and sometimes invisible.
    • Pain during urination.
    • Frequent urge to urinate.
    • Sudden urge for urination.
    • Unintentional leakage in the bladder, known as urine incontinence.

    Bladder cancer is known to have other symptoms as well, if it has affected other parts of the body, namely:

    • Discomfort in the abdomen
    • One-sided pain in the lower body
    • Fatigue
    • Losing weight without any exercise
    • Loss of appetite
    • Joint pain
    • Swelling in feet

    Causes of bladder cancer

    Cancer mainly arises when mutations in the cell lead to their growth of abnormal and unwanted growth, resulting in the rapid multiplication of these cells. If left untreated, this can lead to the spread of these cells to other tissues and muscles. These mutations can be caused by certain factors like exposure to toxic chemicals.

    Certain other conditions also come into play that increase our chances of developing bladder cancer. This includes smoking, family history of cancer,radiation therapy and more.


    Risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    There are a number of factors associated with the growth of bladder cancer cells, which may include:

    • Smoking cigarettes (Research points out that people who smoke cigarettes on a regular basis are three times more likely to develop bladder cancer in comparison to a person who is a non-smoker)
    • Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer such as dyes, paint products, rubber, and metal among the few
    • Family history of the disease
    • Suffer from schistosomiasis a parasite that is known to cause bladder infection
    • Drinking contaminated water
    • Certain supplements and medicine consumption
    • Prior exposure to chemotherapy medications cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) or ifosfamide (lfex)
    • Radiation treatment used to treat pelvic area cancer
    • Suffering from bladder infections frequently
    • Use of urinary catheters for a long time
    • Drinking fluids inadequately
    • Defects in the bladder

    While cancer can affect just about anyone, there are certain other factors that can influence your risk of developing cancer:

    • If you are a male by birth
    • You fall into the age group of 55 or above

    You have a white complexion

  • Everything You Need to Know About Skin Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 12, 2023

    With skin being the largest organ of our body, it’s important to ensure it's well cared for. Your skin provides a protective barrier from the outside world, and nourishing and safeguarding it can help prevent serious health consequences such as sunburns or even skin cancer. Skin cancer is quite common and something we all must be aware of. It is a prevalent condition that develops from the abnormal growth of skin cells. Understanding its types, stages, symptoms, causes, prevention, treatment, and outlook is essential to promote awareness and ensure early detection and effective management. In this quick guide, we’ll cover the ins and outs of skin cancer, from types to treatments. Let’s dive in and get you informed!

    What is skin cancer?

    Skin cancer is characterised by the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells. People develop this condition due to damage to the DNA within skin cells, and is often caused by harsh exposure to UV rays in daylight from the sun. The most prevalent types of skin cancer include basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and melanoma. While the first two are more common and have a high cure rate if detected, melanoma is more aggressive and can spread to other body parts if not addressed promptly. Let’s explore more about the types and causes in the sections to come.


    Types of skin cancer

    There are several types of skin cancer, each with distinct characteristics, causes, and treatment approaches. Let's take a close look at the most common types of cancer.

    1. Basal Cell Carcinoma, or BCC, is the most common form of skin cancer. It typically develops in areas frequently exposed to the sun. For instance, the face, neck, and hands. BCC often appears as a raised, pearly bump or a sore that doesn't heal. While it rarely spreads to other body parts, early treatment is essential to prevent damage to surrounding tissues.
    2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, or SCC, also often develops in sun-exposed areas and can appear as a scaly, red patch or a raised growth with a crusted surface. It has a higher potential to spread to other body areas than BCC. Timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for you to prevent the cancer from advancing.

    3. Melanoma affects the melanocytes (cells that give skin its colour), and is the most severe type of skin cancer. This is because it can reemerge from existing moles or appear as new, abnormal growths and can spread rapidly to other body parts if not detected early. Melanomas often exhibit irregular borders, uneven colouring, and changes in size and shape.

    4. Actinic Keratosis is not a form of skin cancer but a pre-cancerous growth that can develop into SCC if left untreated. It appears as rough, scaly patches on sun-exposed areas and requires medical attention to prevent progression.

    5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of skin cancer that develops from Merkel cells in the skin. It usually appears as firm, shiny nodules on the head, neck, and limbs. Early detection and treatment are vital due to their potential to spread rapidly.

    6. Cutaneous Lymphoma is a type of skin cancer originating in the lymphocytes and can manifest as red, itchy patches or plaques on the skin. It often presents as mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome and may require specialised treatment.

    Stages of skin cancer

    Doctors break cancer down into stages to figure out the right way to approach it. Let’s learn about each stage:

    1.    Stage 0: This early stage skin cancer is present just at the skin's surface, not causing much trouble. Doctors call this "in situ," meaning it's stuck where it started and is very treatable.

    2.    Stage I: The cancer's gotten a bit thicker, but it's still sticking to its site of origin. It might have made a little ulcer on the skin, but it's not invading other parts yet. No trips to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

    3.    Stage III: This is a much more serious. The cancer's grown thicker, maybe even formed an ulcer, but it's still not moving to other lymph nodes or distant places.

    4.    Stage III: The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but it's not yet moved to far-off body parts. Treatment usually involves a combination of processes, like surgery, radiation, and sometimes chemotherapy.

    5.    Stage IV: The cancer has gone beyond its initial spot and invades other organs or faraway lymph nodes. Depending on the situation, treatment at this stage gets more complex and might include surgery, radiation, targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and even chemotherapy.

    Doctors assess these stages through exams, scans, and sometimes by checking lymph nodes or other affected areas. And remember, catching skin cancer at an early stage is extremely helpful for the most successful treatment. Regular skin checks and wearing sunscreen are like your power-ups to keep the game in your favour.

    Symptoms of skin cancer

    So, you may be wondering, “What are the symptoms of skin cancer?” Let's talk about the signs your skin might send you about potential skin cancer.

    • First off, keep an eye out for new spots that suddenly appear and don't seem to be going anywhere. These could be anything from a bump, a mole, or a patch that's a different colour than the rest of your skin.
    • Second, if you've got a mole or spot that's been around for a while and suddenly decides to transform, it's worth checking out. Changes in size, shape, colour, or texture are red flags that shouldn't be ignored.
    • Third, let's talk about itching, bleeding, or crusting. If a spot won't stop itching, or if it's bleeding or crusting over, that's definitely a signal that something may not be quite right.
  • Everything You Need to Know About Lung Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 12, 2023

    Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. The condition develops when cancer cells in the lung tissues start multiplying rapidly and uncontrollably. Lung cancer is mainly traceable to regular smoking and prolonged exposure to smoke, and the common lung cancer symptoms include chest discomfort, cough, breathlessness, and wheezing. Continuous or frequent exposure to cigarette smoke can cause lung cell dysplasia, which leads to genetic changes and carcinogenesis. Lung cancer is common worldwide, but developed countries have seen more cases. The cancer can become fatal if not treated at the right time.      

    What is Lung Cancer?

    Lung cancer affects the lung parenchyma cells or the primary functional cells of the lungs. This cancer type is also known as bronchogenic carcinoma, as it originates from within the lungs' bronchi (tubes) containing alveoli. Around 90% of lung cancer is associated with regular smoking; however, it does not mean a person who never smokes will not develop the disease. Lung cancer has many cellular and molecular subtypes; even so, it is broadly divided into two major types: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), depending on the detection of lung cancer cells under the microscope. 

    Types of Lung Cancer

    Let us look at the two major types:

    • Small Cell Lung Cancer – Rare form of lung cancer (15% of total cases); strongly linked to cigarette smoking. It is highly aggressive and spreads quickly 
    • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer – The most common form of lung cancer (85% of total cases), which is divided into the following three types depending on the cells from where the cancer has originated:
      • Lung adenocarcinoma
      • Squamous cell carcinoma
      • Large cell carcinoma

    Symptoms of lung cancer

    Lung cancer remains asymptomatic mainly until the latter stages, though some mild symptoms may appear initially, which get mostly ignored. However, as the tumour grows, it causes local changes such as increased bronchial compression, leading to chest discomfort. However, as the tumour grows, it causes local changes such as increased bronchial compression, leading to chest discomfort. This is probably the first of lung cancer symptoms and is accompanied by a persistent cough, as observed in some 75% of patients with lung cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma is associated with cough and thin mucus secretion. The following common lung cancer symptoms are usually associated with advanced lung cancer: 

    • Chronic cough with or without mucus
    • Chest pain and breathing problems/dyspnea
    • Blood in cough
    • Recurrent bronchitis and pneumonia
    • Bone pain, if the cancer has spread to the bones
    • Headache
    • Appetite loss and consequent weight loss

    Stages of Lung Cancer

    The pathologist diagnoses the lung cancer stages as per the typical characteristics of a stage. The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) system of determining the cancer stage is followed. Here, “T” represents the location and size of the tumour in the lung, “N” represents the involvement of lymph nodes to determine whether the tumour has started spreading through lymph nodes, while “M” stands for metastasis of the cancerous cells within the lung, i.e. if the cancerous lung cells have spread to distant body organs such as bones, liver, brain, kidney, etc. Lung cancer is staged from I through IV as per the TNM staging system, with minor differences in SCLC and NSCLC. 

    SCLC is divided into the following two categories:

    • Limited stage SCLC – The cancerous cells are just within one lobe of the lung and near a lymph node but have not crossed one lobe to another or metastasised to a distant organ.
    • Extensive stage SCLC – The cancerous cells are found not only in one lung but have spread to the other lung and distant organs through the pleural fluid or bloodstream. 

    The following five lung cancer stages are observed under NSCLC:    

    • Stage 0 – The tumour occupies a tiny place inside a lung, leaving the surrounding lung tissues normal.
    • Stage I – The tumour has grown to reach a size around 3 cm (for stage I A) to 4 cm (for stage I B) involving a considerable part of lung tissue. But since it has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes, stage I lung cancer symptoms may not be conspicuous.
    • Stage II – The tumour has grown more than 4 cm but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (Stage II A) and (Stage II B). 
    • Stage III – The tumour becomes cancerous, and the cancer cells start spreading to nearby lymph nodes. This stage can be divided into Stages III A, III B, and III C depending on the tumour size and particular lymph node involvement. This stage is associated with widespread lymph node metastasis, but the cancerous cells have not metastasised to distant organs. 
    • Stage IV – The cancerous cells have spread from one lobe to the other lobe of the lungs or to a nearby organ (Stage IV A) or one/more distant organs (Stage IV B). The cancerous cells in stage IV spread either by entering the lungs' fluid or into the bloodstream. Once the cells enter the bloodstream, they can reach any body part. NSCLC cells can spread to the liver, bones, brain, and adrenal glands.

    Complications Associated With Lung Cancer

    As the tumour grows, it is usually associated with several complications and side effects linked to lung cancer treatment. These complications are major causes of morbidity and include the following:

    • Complications arising from distant metastasis: In advanced stages, the tumour metastasises to different parts of the body causing various complications. If the tumour metastasises to the brain, it can cause blood clots and stroke. If it metastasises to the kidneys, it can cause kidney stones. It leads to bone pain if metastasised to the bones.
    • Superior vena cava syndrome: As the lung tumour grows it can obstruct blood flow from the upper part of the body to the heart (superior vena cava). Superior vena cava syndrome is associated with swelling of the face, neck, and upper body parts with visually dilated neck veins. This is usually linked to small cell lung cancer.
    • Complications arising from paraneoplastic syndromes: Lung cancer can lead to abnormal parathyroid activity and cause hypercalcemia and related complications such as nausea, anorexia, constipation, and lethargy. Other symptoms associated with neurologic paraneoplastic syndrome include cerebellar ataxia, autonomic neuropathy, encephalomyelitis, and sensory neuropathy. Besides, lung cancer is also linked with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis. In advanced stages, lung cancer can impact the adrenal glands and enhance cortisol hormone production, leading to Cushing’s syndrome. 
    • Complications arising from malignant pleural effusion: Abnormal pleural thickening, nodulation, and malignant pleural effusion are linked with advanced lung cancer. Pleural effusion is further associated with various symptoms, including irritating cough, hoarseness, chest pain, and fever.
    • Complications arising from frequent lung infection: A lung cancer patient can experience recurring lung infection that causes bronchitis, pneumonia, etc. 
  • Everything You Need to Know About Prostate Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 12, 2023

    Prostate cancer is a serious health issue for men, yet it's one that often goes under the radar. While this condition doesn't get the same attention in conversations as other diseases, it affects many men every year and should not be overlooked. To make sure you stay informed, this article will take you through exactly what you need to know about prostate cancer, its causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. From taking preventative measures to staying informed on screenings and treatment options – no stone shall remain unturned as we explore why paying attention to our prostates matters now more than ever before.

    What is Prostate cancer?

    Let’s first dive into what is prostate cancer. It is a type of cancer that affects the prostate gland, which is a small, walnut-shaped gland located just below the bladder in men. This gland is crucial in producing seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. When cells in your prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably, they can form a tumour and potentially spread to other parts of the body. While early-stage prostate cancer might not show noticeable symptoms, routine screenings and awareness are essential for early detection and effective treatment. It's one of the most common cancers in men, but with advancements in medical care, the outlook is positive, especially when caught in its early stages.


    Symptoms of Prostate cancer

    Are you wondering “What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?” Prostate cancer often develops without causing obvious symptoms in its early stages, making detection challenging. However, as the cancer progresses, certain signs may emerge. These can include:
    ● Difficulty in starting or maintaining urination
    ● Frequent urge to urinate (especially at night)
    ● Weak urine stream
    ● Blood in the urine or semen
    ● Painful urination or ejaculation
    ● Discomfort in the back, hips, or pelvis

    In advanced stages, individuals might experience:
    ● Bone pain
    ● Unexplained weight loss
    ● Fatigue

    While these symptoms can also indicate other conditions, it's crucial not to dismiss them. Regular check-ups and screenings, especially for those at higher risk, can help catch prostate cancer early when it's more treatable.

    Causes and risk factors of Prostate cancer

    Prostate cancer is a disease with no definite preventable causes. However, the chances of its development are influenced by various factors or conditions. So, if you’re wondering what causes prostate cancer, here are a few factors that play a major role in this condition.

    1. Age: The older you are, the more chances you've got of developing prostate cancer. It tends to affect individuals at the age of 50 and above.

    2. Family history: If a close relative, like your dad or brother, has had prostate cancer, your chances of having it increase.

    3. Genetics: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can lead to prostate cancer development.

    4. Lynch Syndrome: Lynch syndrome, a rare genetic condition, is linked to mutations in genes like MLH1 and MLH2. People affected by this syndrome face a higher chance of developing various forms of cancer, including prostate cancer.

    5. Lifestyle: Your lifestyle habits also have a major say in your chances of developing prostate cancer. If your diet is loaded with saturated fats, and lacks fruits and veggies, your risk increases all the more. The same goes for the lack of physical activity. Lack of exercise elevates your risk of developing the disease.

    6. Hormone levels: Hormones, which are naturally produced by our body's various organs, play a crucial role in regulating essential functions. One such hormone, Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), specifically controls normal cell growth. Recent research has shown a correlation between elevated levels of IGF-1 and the increased likelihood of developing prostate cancer.

  • How to Check Health Insurance Policy Status

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Sep 12, 2023


    There are several ways to check the status of your health insurance claim. You can check it online on your insurer's website or in person at a branch office. If you purchased your policy through an intermediary, they may also provide you with claim information.

    Policyholders seeking medical treatment at a network hospital do not need to go through this process. That is because the Third Party Administrator or TPA at the relevant hospital has already processed their documents, allowing you to receive cashless treatment.

    Ways to check your health insurance claim status

    You can check your health insurance claim status either online or offline. The online method allows you to follow up from the comfort of your home. For the offline method, you must visit your insurance provider’s branch office and connect with an executive or reach out to your insurance agent who helped you buy the policy in the first place.

    Let us look at each method in detail:

    Online method to check health insurance claim status

    To check your claim status online, you need to follow the steps mentioned below: 

    • Visit your insurer's official website.
    • Navigate to the health insurance page. Once there, click on the claim links to get redirected to the claim page.
    • The page will show you two options—retail or corporate. Click on the "Retail User" tab.
    • Enter the claim number and click on "Proceed."
    • The real-time status of your claim request will be displayed on the screen. 

    You can also check your claim status by sending an email to the customer support email address. Attach a copy of your policy documents and mention the acknowledgement number you received when submitting your claim in the email.

    Offline method to check health insurance claim status

    The offline process for checking your claim status is slightly more time-consuming than the online one. Here’s how you can do it:

    • Visit the nearest branch of your insurer. Carry your policy documents with you. An executive will assist you in learning about your claim status.
    • You can also call the toll-free number listed on the insurer's website. Before informing you of the status, the customer service representative will ask for your policy details and the claim reference number.

    Remember, checking your health insurance claim status offline could demand more effort and be time-consuming compared to the online method.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Endometrial Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 12, 2023

    When it comes to women’s health, one condition that is often not discussed enough is endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer, a type of uterine cancer has become a health concern and hence awareness regarding it is crucial. In this article, we will understand what is endometrial cancer, what are endometrial cancer causes, its stages and the risk factors associated with it. We will also understand the type of endometrial cancer and look at its treatment options and how it can be prevented.


    What is endometrial cancer?

    Endometrial cancer, a form of uterine cancer, originates in the endometrium – the inner lining of the uterus. As per the data provided by the National Cancer Institute, (NCI), it is believed that 3 out of every 100 women are at risk of being diagnosed with uterine cancer once in their lifetime. While talking about the survival rate, 80 percent of women survive for 5 years or even more after receiving the treatment. Thus, early detection and diagnosis increase the chances of recovery from endometrial cancer.


    Symptoms of endometrial cancer

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding stands out as the predominant symptom linked to endometrial cancer. Further symptoms include:

    • Changes in menstrual cycle flow and length
    • Bleeding or spotting occurring between menstrual periods
    • Vaginal bleeding after menopause

    Some other symptoms include:

    • Pain during intercourse
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Discomfort experienced in the pelvic and lower abdominal regions
    • Blood-tinged or watery discharge from the vagina

    If one experiences any of the above listed symptoms then do consult a doctor. At times these may not be a sign of serious issues but to be on the safer side a consultation is ideal.

    Menopause or other non-cancerous issues can cause bleeding in the vagina. Though in some cases it is associated with endometrial cancer and other gynecological cancer.

    It is your doctor only who can identify the cause and put you on the right treatment.

    Causes of endometrial cancer

    The exact endometrial cancer causes are still unknown. Experts attribute it to the changes occurring in the hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone as they affect the endometrium. The increased levels of estrogen cause the endometrial cells to multiply and divide.

    Genetic mutations occurring in the endometrial cells can cause them to rapidly grow and transform into tumours.

    There are numerous studies being conducted to understand what causes normal endometrial cells to convert into cancer cells.

    Risk factors associated with endometrial cancer

    Age is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. According to reports, people under the age group of 45 to 75 are more prone to be affected by endometrial cancer.
    A number of other factors are also connected with the increased risk of endometrial cancer. These include changes seen in the level of sex hormones of the woman, certain medical conditions, family history of cancer, obesity, and more. Let’s discuss some of these factors further:
    1. Hormone levels
    Female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are mainly responsible for the health of the endometrium. Drastic increases in the production of these hormones can increase the risk of being diagnosed with endometrial cancer.
    2. Patient medical history
    A woman’s medical history is also known to have an effect on the sex hormone leading to higher chances of developing endometrial cancer, including:
    ● Longer years of menstruation and early menarche or late menopause increase endometrial cancer risk.
    ● Lack of pregnancies heightens risk, especially with infertility-related issues.
    ● Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) elevates risk due to hormonal imbalances
    ● Granulosa cell tumors in ovaries releasing estrogen raise endometrial cancer risk
    3. Medication:
    Medications like estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) or tamoxifen can impact hormone balance. Tamoxifen, used for breast cancer, may increase endometrial cancer risk.
    4. Birth control
    Birth control pills lower endometrial cancer risk, with longer use offering greater protection. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are linked to reduced endometrial cancer risk.
    5. Endometrial hyperplasia
    Endometrial hyperplasia is a disorder where the lining of the uterus becomes thick but it cannot be termed cancerous. At times it goes away on its own, and in other cases it can be treated with HRT or surgery. Endometrial hyperplasia, when not treated, can turn into endometrial cancer. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is known to be the most common symptom of endometrial hyperplasia.
    6. Obesity
    People who are obese and have extra weight are more at risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes which is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. Higher the chances of obesity in people having type 2 diabetes, the more they are prone to endometrial cancer.
    7. History of cancer
    Your chances of developing endometrial cancer are much higher if other members of the family have had it. Moreover, a family history of Lynch syndrome also increases the chances of developing cancer. Having suffered from breast cancer or ovarian cancer raises your risk of endometrial cancer. Also, radiation therapy on the pelvis increases your chances of having endometrial cancer.
    One should be cautious about these risk factors also. In some cases, people who have been identified as suffering from certain factors may never develop endometrial cancer and on the other hand, people who never showed any risk factors may develop endometrial cancer.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Lymphoma

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 11, 2023

    Lymphoma is the general term for a group of blood cancers that occurs in our lymphatic system. This vital system is made up of a network of tissues, vessels and organs that helps in fighting infections in our body. This cancer is also known as blood cancer, as it starts in the white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the lymphatic system. A specific reason for the occurrence of lymphoma and related cancer cannot be attributed to any specific cause and the research continues. In this article, we will explore what is lymphoma, its causes, treatment options and more.

    What is lymphoma?

    Lymphoma, a type of cancer, affects the lymphatic system that plays a vital role in defending the body against infection.  This type of cancer can quickly metastasize or spread to different tissues and organs like the liver, bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lungs. It can occur at any age, but the most commonly reported cases of lymphoma are of children and young adults aged 15-24 years. There are 2 main types of lymphoma: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common type that develops from B and T lymphocytes (cells) present in the lymph nodes or tissues throughout the body. Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system that involves abnormal large B lymphocytes that usually moves from one lymph node to an adjacent one.

    Symptoms of lymphoma

    The most common lymphoma symptoms can include:

    • Swelling of one or more lymph nodes that does not cause pain
    • High fever persisting for a longer period without infection
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Loss of appetite
    • Persistent fatigue or tiredness
    • Sweaty nights
    • Unusual itching
    • Shortness of breath
    • Cough and chest pain
    • Swelling in armpits, neck or abdomen
    • Bruising or Bleeding

    Causes of Lymphoma

    Doctors do not understand the real lymphoma causes. However, there are certain factors that can increase our risk of developing lymphoma. These include:

    • Genetics: Disease-fighting white blood cells go through genetic mutation and continue to multiply in the lymphatic fluid. As a result, cancer spreads to the patient's lymph nodes, liver and spleen.
    • Viral disease: There is an increased risk of acquiring lymphoma after exposure to certain viruses including HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and Epstein-Barr (causes mononucleosis) Virus.
    • Weak immune system: A person would be at higher risk of developing lymphoma if their immune system is weakened by other conditions or medical treatments. For example, people who undergo organ transplantation and have to take immunosuppressant medication to keep their bodies from rejecting the transplanted organ would have a weak immune system.
    • Autoimmune disease: Individuals with autoimmune diseases have an increased susceptibility to blood cancer, a condition in which the body mistakenly targets its own cells. Conditions like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease are associated with a heightened risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    How is Lymphoma diagnosed?

    To diagnose lymphoma in a suspected patient, a doctor will perform a biopsy by removing cells from an enlarged lymph node which is then sent to a hematopathologist for examination. The other tests to diagnose lymphoma are:

    • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: This technique involves the use of powerful X-rays that create detailed pictures inside the body
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This scan is done to acquire a three-dimensional image, to look for lymphoma in the bone marrow.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging: It is a powerful technique that uses magnets and radio waves to acquire images of the lymph nodes.
    • Bone Marrow Biopsy: Bone marrow biopsy, in which a small amount of liquid is taken from the bone marrow, is done to identify if cells present in the bone marrow are cancerous or not.
    • Gland Biopsy: It involves the biopsy of lymph nodes or tissue of the nearby cells
    • Ultrasound: In this method, high-energy sound waves are used to create echoes that form a picture of the abdominal organs.
    • Lumbar puncture: This is performed where a small amount of fluid from the spine is removed and tested for cancer cell growth.
  • Everything You Need to Know About Ovarian Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 11, 2023

    Ovarian cancer is a form of cancer that is not often talked about. It is a type of cancer that grows in the ovaries, which are the main part of the female reproductive system. Women who are diagnosed with this form of cancer often do not exhibit any symptoms in the early stages of the disease, which can make it difficult to catch. Unfortunately, this also means that the cancer has typically spread to other parts of the body by the time it is detected, making it more difficult to treat successfully. While the thought can be scary, it is important to understand the various ovarian cancer symptoms, in order to catch it as early as possible. In this article, we'll explore everything you need to know about ovarian cancer- from risk factors and symptoms to ovarian cancer stages diagnosis, treatments, and more. We hope our insights leave you feeling educated and empowered in your battle against ovarian cancer!


    What is ovarian cancer?

    Women have two ovaries which are an important part of the female reproductive system. Ovaries are located on each side of the uterus and produce eggs and hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer can start in one or both ovaries, when abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control and even in the abdominal lining, called the peritoneum. Like other cancers, ovarian cancer can invade and grow spreading to other tissues and organs leading to a condition known as metastasis. Epithelial ovarian cancer is reported to be the most common type of ovarian cancer, in which cancer cells start growing on the surface of the ovary.


    Symptoms of ovarian cancer

    Ovarian cancer-related symptoms are hard to find in its earliest stages, and is often detected in the advanced stage of cancer.  So it is always recommended to consult a gynaecologist in cases of irregular menstruation or any abnormalities related to the female reproductive system. The ovarian cancer symptoms include:

    • Vaginal bleeding (not occuring because of menstruation)
    • Irregular menstrual periods
    • Watery or white vaginal discharge that contains blood
    • Urge to urinate frequently
    • Discomfort in the pelvic area
    • Fullness after eating less amount of food
    • Bleeding from the vagina after menopause
    • Gastrointestinal problems like bloating
    • Swelling in the lower abdomen
    • Pain in the lower belly
    • Constipation
    • Painful intercourse
    • Fatigue

    Risk factors associated with ovarian cancer

    According to studies, there is no particular way to prevent ovarian cancer, but we might be able to reduce the chances of developing this disease by understanding a few risk factors, such as: 

    • Women with advancing age between 50 to 79 years are at a higher risk of getting this cancer
    • Inherited gene mutations (such as BRCA): The genes that are responsible for ovarian cancer are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), which increase the risk for breast or ovarian cancer. You can consult with your doctor about getting gene testing, especially if the risk runs in your family.
    • Certain post-menopausal conditions can trigger the cells of the female reproductive system to mutate, leading to ovarian cancer.
    • Birth control: Most studies have found that women using oral contraceptives or taking long-acting progesterone shots every 3 months for birth control have a slightly higher risk of ovarian cancer than women who have never used them.
    • Being overweight or obese has been directly linked to having a higher risk of developing many cancers, including ovarian cancer.
    • Postmenopausal hormone therapy, in which oestrogen combined with progesterone has been used to help relieve symptoms of menopause, have been found to increase the risk of developing cancer.
    • Having a family history of endometrial cancer or colorectal cancer can also raise the risk of developing ovarian cancer.


    Stages of ovarian cancer

    After diagnosing ovarian cancer, healthcare professionals assess its stage and grade to develop an effective treatment plan. There are four ovarian cancer stages, determined by the extent of the disease's spread.

    • Stage I: In this ovarian cancer stage, cancer is present in both ovaries and fallopian tubes and in the space around the ovary (called the peritoneal cavity).
    • Stage II: In this stage, the cancer is not only in the ovaries but has spread to the uterus and also to other nearby structures in the pelvis.
    • Stage III: In this stage, the tumour is 2 centimetres or more in size, and has spread beyond the pelvic area, lymph nodes and it could impact other organs, like the liver and spleen.
    • Stage IV: Stage IV cancer is the most severe stage in which the cancer has spread to the inside of organs such as the liver or spleen, and also to the lymph nodes of the groin or into the chest.
  • Everything You Need to Know About Breast Cancer

    by iciclombard 01 | Sep 11, 2023

    Breast cancer can feel like a daunting and overwhelming topic, but understanding the basics of what it is and how to recognize the signs could help you save your own life or that of someone else. In this article, we will go over everything from breast cancer basics, to recognizing symptoms of breast cancer, causes of the disease as well as breaking down stages for diagnosis so that we can all learn more about how to detect this important health issue. Knowing these key facts may not only help those affected by breast cancer but hopefully allow us to take proactive steps towards prevention and early detection. Additionally, the importance of having proper health insurance coverage for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment cannot be overstated. With the right breast cancer insurance policy, many patients are able to receive the best care possible, including important tests such as mammograms, MRIs, and biopsies. 


    What is breast cancer? 

    Breast cancer originates in the breast tissue, wherein cells mutate and grow out of control, creating a mass of tissue that results in a tumour. Like other cancers, breast cancer cells can grow rapidly, spreading to other tissues and organs leading to a condition known as metastasis. Sometimes, the non-cancerous tissue mass growing in the breast does not spread outside of the breast and is referred to as a benign tumour. This form is usually not life-threatening if treated on time. Some types of breast lumps can be malignant, meaning it can be spread to other body parts. 


    Symptoms of breast cancer 

    It should be noted that the signs and symptoms of breast cancer can vary for each person based on the type of breast cancer. Breast cancer often has no symptoms in the early stages and usually appears in advanced cancer stages. The signs and symptoms are:

    ●    A breast lump or thickening which is often non-painful

    ●    A lump or thickened area in or near the breast or underarms

    ●    A change in shape, cup size or appearance of the breast

    ●    Reddish skin on the breast

    ●    A change in nipple appearance  

    ●    Abnormal or bloody fluid from the nipple.

    ●    A blood-stained or clear fluid discharge from the nipple

    ●    A distinct area on either side of the breast that differs from the other skin area


    Levels of pain one may experience 

    Pain can be both a symptom of breast cancer itself or a side effect of breast cancer treatment that occurs when nerves or tissues are damaged or inflamed. The frequency of pain increases with the onset and progression of the disease because of which, the sharpness, throbbing, stabbing, aching, tingling, or pinching increases, hampering sleep patterns and the daily performance of the patient which slows down with the spread of the disease.


    Causes of breast cancer 

    The causes of breast cancer are many, but genetic mutations also play a major role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The genes that are responsible for the occurance of breast cancer are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2) which significantly increases the risk for breast or ovarian cancer.

    However, researchers have studied several risk factors that may increase the chances of developing breast cancer. These include:

    ●    Age: Women aged 50 or older are more at risk to get breast cancer than younger women.

    ●    Sex: Breast cancer can occur in both men and women but the maximum number of cases of breast cancer are reported in women

    ●    Personal history of cancer: Our odds could go up slightly if we have certain benign breast conditions.

    ●    Family history: Women who have a family history of breast cancer face an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

  • COVID-19: How to Sanitise Your Home Effectively test

    by Adnan Ansari | Sep 11, 2023

    How long does COVID-19 virus live on surfaces? Can coronavirus be transferred via grocery items? Should I wash my vegetables in a soap solution? How often do I disinfect surfaces? Should I sun the grocery items I’ve bought? COVID-19 has changed how we perceive things. For example, a quirky, eye-catching door handle or knocker is now just another often touched surface that must be disinfected on the regular. Mundane chores have now acquired a sense of urgency that belies their innocuous nature.

    But we aren’t here to help you ace your household chores with a Stepford wife precision for Instagram-worthy results. We’re here with pointers that we hope will help effectively answer (one of) the most pertinent questions – How do I disinfect/sanitise my home to stay safe? Before we begin here are a few things to take note of -

    Keep in mind the following difference:

    Cleaning v/s Disinfecting

    Cleaning means clearing contaminants from the surface.

    Process of disinfecting helps in getting rid of harmful pathogens.

    Essentials you’ll need:

    Disinfecting wipes, disinfectant sprays, disposable or reusable gloves, detergent, 70% isopropyl alcohol solution, bleach


    Set up a task-list and prioritise high-touch surfaces such as door knobs, handles, toilets, kitchen countertop, and faucets should be cleaned and disinfected routinely. While COVID-19 transmission occurs mainly through respiratory droplets, surface transmission can also take place. Early evidence suggests that the coronavirus can live on surfaces. Hence, cleaning surfaces or things that you or your family may be touching frequently becomes imperative. A publication by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas mentions, “Coronaviruses are surrounded by a lipid membrane and have a single-stranded RNA genome. This is important because the lipid membrane is very sensitive to soap and the RNA genome is very sensitive to UV light. In general, these are very sensitive microorganisms that don’t survive a long time without a host.” Ergo, frequent disinfection and cleaning goes a long way in keeping the virus at bay.

    Here’s how to go about sanitizing your home

    Let’s scratch sanitise the surface

    As mentioned previously, Table tops, handles, the kitchen slab, children’s toys are all areas that require frequent cleaning. According to the CDC, the above should be cleaned using regular household cleaning agents. You can also use a mixture of soap and water. Remember to wear disposable gloves when you’re on a cleaning spree. If you’re using reusable gloves for cleaning or disinfecting surfaces for the purpose of COVID-19, set them aside and ensure that you don’t use them for any other task. As per UNICEF guidelines, “It’s important not to wipe cleaning solutions off as soon as you have applied it to a surface. Many disinfectant products, such as wipes and sprays, need to stay wet on a surface for several minutes in order to be effective.”

    Cleaning electronics

    Keyboards, tablets remotes, mobile phones should all be cleaned frequently using alcohol-based wipes, preferably a make with a high percentage of alcohol content. Make sure to read the manufacturer’s directions and recommendations for cleaning all electronic items. You can also use these wipes to clean board games, something everyone in the family must be making frequent use of considering we’re all homebound these days.

    Also read: Life after lockdown: 7 mistakes you should avoid to stay safe from COVID-19

    Soft surfaces

    Curtains, carpets, sofa covers, bed sheets should be cleaned from time-to-time using warm water, appropriate detergent and a disinfectant. If you have a washing machine at home, wash the items in warm water. Read instructions carefully just in case you have items that may shrink. Do not shake dirty laundry and wash your hands thoroughly after handling dirty laundry. Don’t forget to disinfect the laundry basket too from time to time.

    Handling and prepping food

    There are some activities that we cannot put a full stop to. A grocery run is one of them. Browsing the shelves, an innocuous activity pre-COVID comes with its own set of risks now. You have no way of knowing who and how many have handled a packet that you’re now loading into your shopping cart. Same goes for food that you may be ordering in. So if you’re returning home post a grocery run or receiving a takeout order from the delivery person, first things first – wash your hands with soap for at least 20 seconds. Discard the packet you have received your food in. If you’re using a cloth bag (really you should!) for your errands, put it away for wash. Empty the contents of your takeout into clean utensils. Try and limit your errands; buy enough to at least last you a week or two.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Eye Cancer

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Sep 11, 2023

    Our eyes are one of the most important organs in the human body. They allow us to see the world around us and experience its beauty. However, the importance of our eyes often goes unnoticed until we experience an issue. One such issue is eye cancer, which is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. Eye cancer can affect any part of the eye, and early detection is critical for successful treatment. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of eye cancer. We will talk about what eye cancer is, its types, and what causes eye cancer. We will also look at what are the symptoms of eye cancer and some tips that can help reduce the risk of acquiring it. Furthermore, we will delve into treatment options for eye cancer and the overall outlook for those affected.


    What is Eye Cancer?

    So, what is eye cancer?. Eye cancer, or ocular cancer, refers to the abnormal growth of cells within the eye. It can occur in any of the eye’s three major parts, i.e. the eyeball, the orbit, and the adnexal structures. Let’s understand these parts a bit better.

    • The eyeball is filled with a jelly-type fluid called the vitreous humor. It has three layers: the sclera, the uvea, and the retina. The outer wall is termed the sclera. Uvea is responsible for nourishment to the eye. The retina transmits information from the eye to the brain.
    • The orbit is the bone and tissue framework around the eye.
    • The adnexal structures comprise the eyelids and tear glands.

    Eye cancer can occur in any of these parts. Scientists are actively investigating genetic changes within DNA that trigger eye cancer.


    Types of Eye Cancer

    Eye cancer, though rare, manifests in various forms. They also have a distinctive prevalence across different age groups.

    For adults, the most common type is melanoma. Intraocular melanoma starts in the cells that give the eye its color. Uveal melanoma is the most frequent. It accounts for 85% of cases of primary intraocular cancers. Most of these occur in the choroid (middle layer of tissue in the eye wall). Conjunctival melanoma affects the clear layer over the sclera, and is less common among adults.

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the next most common eye cancer in adults. It's more likely in people with immune system-related issues.

    There are also rare primary eye cancers like orbital and adnexal cancers in adults.

    Among children, the main eye cancer is retinoblastoma. A very uncommon type is medulloepithelioma.


    Symptoms of Eye Cancer

    Let us now understand what the symptoms of eye cancer are. Understanding what the first signs of eye cancer are is crucial for timely detection and prompt treatment. In many cases of eye cancer, individuals may not experience noticeable symptoms until the disease has advanced. However, certain indicators warrant immediate attention from a healthcare professional:

    • Blurry or sudden loss of vision
    • Tiny floating specks (floaters) or flashes of light
    • Partial loss of your visual field
    • A growing dark spot on your eye's colored part (iris)
    • Changes in pupil size or shape
    • Shifts in eyeball position
    • Bulging eye appearance
    • Altered eye movement

    Pain is uncommon in eye cancer unless the tumor is large. Remember, these signs could also be linked to other issues, not just cancer. Healthcare providers use tests like ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound, and fluorescein angiography to diagnose eye cancer.


  • Everything You Need to Know About Bone Marrow Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 07, 2023

    Bone Marrow is one of the most important elements in our bodies, as it plays a vital role in producing blood cells and providing immunity. It also serves as a storehouse for stem cells, which have many potential uses within the medical field. Not only this, but bone marrow can be affected by certain types of cancer known as "bone marrow cancer". There are different forms of this condition, depending on the bone marrow cell type that turns cancerous. This article will delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment of bone marrow cancer.


    What is Bone Marrow Cancer?

    An abnormal multiplication of any of the cells present in the bone marrow, including precursor blood cells, stem cells, or adult cells is considered a diseased condition termed as bone marrow cancer. Since these cells are the major components that make up the blood, any malignancy arising in these cells can affect other parts of the body. The cancer can spread to other organs when the cancerous blood cells get carried to different locations in the body through blood. Hence, bone marrow cancer is considered a malignant form of cancer. It is also known as blood cancer because the malignancy arising in the soft tissue of the bone eventually affects the blood.


    Causes of Bone Marrow Cancer

    Mutations in the DNA of the cells are the reason for the development of cancer but the exact cause that leads to this change is unknown in many cases. Hence, the precise bone marrow cancer causes are not fully understood. Researchers have identified certain risk factors linked to bone marrow cancer which includes:

    • Increasing age
    • Radiation exposure
    • Family history of the particular bone marrow cancer type
    • Exposure to carcinogenic chemicals
    • Having other bone marrow-related disorders

    Types of Bone Marrow Cancer

    There are three main forms of blood cancer depending on the bone marrow cells that have become cancerous. These are:

    1. Multiple myeloma: Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which is a type of white blood cell. These cells are involved in the production of antibodies that are targeted against antigens. But in multiple myeloma, the malignant plasma cells generate abnormal proteins that cause health complications. The cancerous cells aggregate in the bone marrow, outnumbering the healthy blood cells.
    2. Leukemia: Leukemia is a general term to denote the cancer of blood-forming cells. It usually involves the abnormal multiplication of white blood cells. There are mainly two forms of leukemia: lymphocytic leukemia affecting the lymphocytes, and myelogenous leukemia involving myeloid cells.
    3. Lymphoma: Cancers that begin in the lymphatic system are categorised under the broad term lymphoma. It arises when the cells of the immune system that are dedicated to fighting off infections, called lymphocytes, grow out of control. This cancer can develop in any part of the lymphatic system, like the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. It can also metastasize to the liver or kidney. There are two main classifications of lymphoma: Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


    Symptoms of Bone Marrow Cancer

    The signs and symptoms of bone marrow cancer vary depending on the type and stage of the cancer. The common indications of multiple myeloma may include:

    • Bone pain or fractures
    • Feeling exhausted
    • Having a high rate of infections due to a shortage of disease-fighting white blood cells
    • Change in the frequency of urination
    • Excessive thirst
    • Confusion as a result of high levels of blood calcium
    • Losing body weight for no reason
    • Vomiting

    The symptoms of leukemia may manifest as:

    • Extreme tiredness
    • Lack of energy
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fever accompanied by chills
    • Night sweats
    • Enlarged lymph nodes
    • Unexplained loss of weight
    • Tiny red dots appearing on the skin
    • Easily getting bruises and bleeding
    • Bone pain
    • Frequently occurring infections

    Some of the signs and symptoms that indicate the possibility of having lymphoma are:

    • Fever accompanied by chills
    • Low energy levels
    • Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes
    • Swollen underarms, neck, arms, legs, or groin
    • Having night sweats
    • Experiencing nerve pain
    • Having numbness in different body parts
    • Having tingling sensation, pain in the chest or lower back
    • Itchy rashes appearing on the body
    • Feeling of fullness in the stomach.


    How is Bone Marrow Cancer Diagnosed?

    After carefully analysing the symptoms, the doctor may suggest running certain tests to confirm the diagnosis. This includes a blood test and bone marrow examination. A complete blood cell count is done to evaluate the number of white and red blood cells and platelets. Any abnormal increase in any of these cells may be an indication of blood cancer.

    There are two types of bone marrow testing for cancer, which are aspiration and biopsy. In bone marrow aspiration, a small sample of the bone marrow’s liquid part is taken using a needle. This is then examined to check the number of red and white blood cells and platelets. Bone marrow biopsy procedure involves removing a tissue sample from the bone marrow and examining it under the microscope to investigate if the cells are cancerous.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Throat Cancer

    by icicilombard 002 | Sep 07, 2023

    From speaking to singing and from breathing to swallowing-the throat plays an incredibly important role in how we engage with the world around us. Everyone, regardless of their age, gender or lifestyle, relies on the health of their throat for a range of activities. Taking good care of your throat should be near the top of everyone’s list when considering their overall wellness. Understanding the signs and symptoms of a more serious condition like throat cancer can help ensure that any issue you may have with such a delicate area gets addressed quickly and appropriately. With this in mind, it’s essential that you understand just what impacts your throat’s health and take actionable steps towards looking after it on a daily basis.

    What is Throat Cancer?

    Throat cancer, in everyday language, refers to cancer that begins in your throat. However, doctors and medical experts prefer to use more precise terms because the throat area can be affected by various types of cancers. When you have medical appointments, your healthcare provider will explain the exact type of cancer you're dealing with using the correct medical terms.

    For instance, cancer that starts in the thyroid gland at the front of your neck is called thyroid cancer. Cancer that begins in the tube that typically carries food to your stomach is known as esophageal cancer. Similarly, cancer that originates in the windpipe, also called the trachea, is called tracheal cancer.

    Types of Throat Cancer 

    The following are some of the most commonly known types of neck cancer.

    • Oropharyngeal cancer: This type typically impacts the area situated just behind your mouth. Nasopharyngeal cancer: This typically emerges in the area behind your nose.
    • Laryngeal cancer: This cancer refers to tumours forming within your vocal cords. The origin of the cancer can be from different parts of your voice box.
    • Glottic cancer: If you encounter glottic cancer, it affects your vocal cords located in the middle of your larynx. Notably, more than half of all laryngeal cancer cases begin in this region.
    • Subglottic cancer: This cancer starts beneath your vocal cords, in the lower portion of your voice box. Supraglottic cancer originates in the upper part of your larynx and might typically include the epiglottis; it is the cartilage that prevents food from entering your windpipe.


    Symptoms of Throat Cancer

    Listed below are some of the most commonly known throat cancer symptoms:

    • Keep an eye out for recurring nosebleeds.
    • The tumour's presence can affect your voice, making it quieter, huskier, or resembling a perpetual cold.
    • Throat cancer can make eating and swallowing painful and difficult, leading to weight loss, a common symptom in various cancer types.
    • You might encounter pain or a burning sensation when chewing or swallowing, as the tumour interferes with these actions.


    Causes of Throat Cancer

    The following are some of the popular risk factors that can potentially become one of the throat cancer reasons.

    • If you are a man, you have a 4 to 5 times greater likelihood of developing throat cancer compared to women.
    • If you have been exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual activity with an infected partner, you are at risk of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.
    • While those over 55 years of age face a higher risk, it's crucial to note that even younger individuals can also be affected by these types of cancer.
    • If you use tobacco products like cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, or snuff, you need to be aware that these increase your risk of cancer. An astonishing 85% of cancer cases are linked to tobacco use. In addition to direct smoking, exposure to second hand smoke and smoking marijuana can further raise this risk.
    • If you have difficulty swallowing and are iron deficient, be aware that you are at a higher risk of throat cancer due to this condition.
    • If you happen to frequently consume alcohol in excessive amounts, you are significantly increasing your chances of developing cancer. Combining alcohol with tobacco usage intensifies this risk more.
    • If your occupation exposes you to harmful substances like asbestos, wood dust, paint fumes, or specific chemicals, your risk of developing cancer significantly increases.