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Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is primarily caused by bacterial or viral infections that ascend from the cervix to the upper reproductive tract, leading to inflammation and scarring of organs such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

  • 28 Feb 2024
  • 2 min read

Inflammation of the upper genital tract, which usually occurs from underlying bacterial or virus infection in the genitals, is known as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). If the infection in the genitals is left untreated, it can travel upwards and cause inflammation in other reproductive organs, such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. 

This article explores the causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in detail.

What are the causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?    

A majority of PID cases emerge from the transmission of infecting agents from the cervix to the upper part of the female reproductive tract. Upon reaching the tract, the infection can cause severe inflammation and scarring of tissues and organs. PID can also cause partial or total damage and obstruction to the fallopian tubes, rendering conception very difficult. The primary cause of PID is bacterial or viral infection, which can be transmitted to sexual partners.   

The following are the major PID causes:

  • Infection by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Infection by some other cervical microbes, including Mycoplasma, E. coli, Staphylococcus, etc.,
  • Viruses such as the Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) that causes many sexually transmitted diseases may also cause PID
  • Sexual intercourse with an infected person
  • Infection at the time of childbirth, miscarriage, pelvic surgery, tubal ligation, or during the implantation of Intrauterine Devices (IUD) can cause PID


Lack of proper medical attention after an infection can induce the onset of PID. This disease can be avoided by refraining from unhealthy means of sexual intercourse and maintaining vaginal hygiene. Assessing the symptoms of vaginal infection and going for early treatment can prevent PID. Various tests and surgery options are available to manage this condition properly. That may involve substantial medical bills, but you can tide over such a phase by opting for a sound health insurance plan.    

Disclaimer: The information provided in this blog is for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Please consult your general physician or another certified medical professional for any questions regarding a medical condition. Relying on any information provided in this blog is solely at your own risk, and ICICI Lombard is not responsible for any effects or consequences resulting from the use of the information shared.


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