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  • What Are the Different Types of Motor Insurance in India?

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Sep 07, 2023

    If you’re a proud owner of a vehicle, chances are that you might be looking for an insurance cover to safeguard your prized possession. But first, you must know about the different types of insurance coverage available to understand what’s in it for you.

    Motor insurance generally encompasses various motor vehicles like motorcycles, cars, and commercial vehicles. This insurance is crucial for personal and public safety. Motor insurance extends beyond the vehicle itself. To delve into its specifics, let's explore the types of motor insurance and their coverage. Generally, the classification gets based on two factors: the vehicle type that’s insured and the desired coverage extent. By understanding the various aspects of motor insurance, you can ensure your protection and the well-being of others on the road.

    Types of Motor Vehicle Insurance

    Different types of motor vehicle insurance offer various coverage options. The following are some of the most popular types of motor insurance policies in India.

    Private Car Insurance

    It offers financial protection for personally used vehicles. It safeguards cars and owners from accidents, theft, fires, and natural calamities. It also covers third-party liabilities, including injuries, fatalities, or property damage from accidents involving the insured car. While third-party liability coverage is obligatory by Motor Vehicle Act in India, having own damage insurance is good for its comprehensive coverage. However, it excludes damages from breakdowns, invalid licenses, drunk driving, wear and tear, and incidents outside the specified area or due to commercial use.

    Policyholders can enhance coverage with optional add-ons like zero depreciation, engine assistance, loss of belongings, return to invoice, and consumables cover. Factors like budget, coverage needs, vehicle age, and type play a significant role in this type of car insurance.

    To file a Private Car insurance claim, contact your agent, dial the toll-free number, or complete online forms provided by your insurance service provider. Ensure you possess essential details like incident date and time, policy number, and contact information. 

    Two-wheeler Insurance

    A two-wheeler policy is mandatory and covers third-party liabilities and own damages. The types of motor vehicle insurance, in this case, include third-party, comprehensive, and standalone own-damage insurance. 

    Third-party insurance is obligatory and covers third-party losses. Comprehensive insurance covers personal damages and third-party liabilities. Standalone own-damage insurance covers the insured vehicle.

    Inclusions cover natural and man-made damage. Exclusions include driving under the influence of intoxicating substances and the absence of valid documentation. 

    Commercial Vehicle Insurance

    It is one of the most popular types of motor vehicle insurance that covers damage to or by commercial vehicles, protecting both parties in accidents. Business owners are mandated to insure vehicles like trucks, buses, and cabs. Key features include comprehensive coverage for public and private carriers, liability for accidents, and compensation for unexpected expenses. It also addresses third-party damage and offers personal accident coverage. Exclusions encompass wear and tear, war perils, and usage limitations. This insurance ensures business operations continue smoothly by providing financial security against adverse events.

    To claim this insurance, promptly inform the insurer and provide essential details like time, location, and incident description. Required documents for claiming your insurance include vehicle registration, driving license, claim form, FIR copy, tax receipt, Aadhar card, fitness certificate, policy papers, and route permit.


    Various types of motor vehicle insurance play a vital role in ensuring personal and public safety on the roads. For example, private car insurance, while not obligatory, offers extensive security against various damages and liabilities, enhancing peace of mind. By understanding the nuances of the different types of motor insurance policies and choosing the right coverage, you can secure your well-being and contribute to safer road experiences for everyone. Remember to choose a policy based on your budget and usage.

  • Types of Suspension Systems in India and How Do They Function

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Sep 06, 2023

    Have you ever wondered how cars and other vehicles smoothly glide over bumpy roads without rattling everyone inside? Well, the secret lies in their suspension systems! In India, different types of suspension systems play a vital role in ensuring a comfortable and safe ride. But what exactly are these suspension systems, and how do they work? Let’s find out.


    What are the different types of suspension systems in India?


    1. Leaf Spring Suspension 

    It is a simple form of suspension that uses several metal strips, called leaves, stacked on each other to absorb shocks and vibrations from the road. It gets commonly used for heavy vehicles like trucks and buses, but some cars in India also have leaf spring suspension, especially in the rear axle. 


    2. Trailing Arm Suspension

    It is a type of independent rear suspension system for cars that uses a large, horizontal arm to connect the wheel hub to the vehicle frame. The arm pivots at one point, ahead of the wheel, and allows the wheel to move up and down with the road surface. 


    3. Non-Independent Suspension

    This vehicle suspension connects both wheels on the same axle with a solid beam or bar. This means the other wheel tilts slightly when one wheel moves up or down due to a bump or pothole. It is suitable for handling heavy loads and navigating challenging roads.


    4. Independent Suspension

    This type of vehicle suspension entails an enhanced damping effect. There is no link between the movement of the right and left wheels, which allows the vehicle to move independently. The structure is a bit complex as the layout of dampers and springs differs considerably with distinct categories of independent suspensions.


    5. Double Wishbone Suspension

    It is a type of suspension where the wheels get mounted on two arms, usually of unequal length, along with a coil spring and shock absorber. It is used in sports cars and luxury cars, as well as some trucks and SUVs. It offers great handling, stability, and control at high speeds because it has a low centre of gravity and allows each wheel to react independently from the others. 


    6. MacPherson Strut Suspension

    It is a type of front suspension system that uses the top of a shock absorber as the upper steering pivot for the wheel. It consists of a coil spring, a shock absorber, and a control arm that connects the wheel hub to the chassis. It allows the wheel to move up and down independently of the other wheels, improving ride comfort and handling. 


    7. Air Suspension

    This vehicle suspension system uses airbags or bellows instead of conventional or leaf springs. It provides better ride comfort, handling, and load-carrying capacity by adjusting the air pressure in the airbags according to the road conditions and vehicle load.


    8. Multi-Link Suspension

    It is a type of independent suspension that uses multiple linkages to control the movement and alignment of the wheels. It offers better handling and ride comfort than non-independent suspension, as it can isolate the effects of bumps and corners on each wheel. Multi-link suspension is also more adaptable and adjustable, as it allows fine-tuning of the suspension geometry and characteristics.

    How does a car suspension system work?

    A car suspension system comprises springs that can retain the kinetic energy produced by friction when the vehicle moves on a rough road at high speeds. Subsequently, this stored energy gets transferred to the dampers, where it converts into heat energy. 

    The fluid within the dampers efficiently disperses this energy, preventing overheating issues. As a result of the coordinated action between springs and dampers, you can experience optimal safety and comfort during your ride. Even though suspension offers enough stability control, buying car insurance is recommended to overcome any financial challenges arising from a road mishap.

  • What is the difference between zero depreciation and RTI car insurance

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Jun 12, 2023

    When choosing a car insurance policy, two popular options that you may come across are Zero Depreciation and Return to Invoice (RTI) insurance. In this article, we will explore the differences between Zero Depreciation and RTI car insurance.


    Difference between Zero Depreciation and RTI Car Insurance:


    Zero Depreciation

    Return to Invoice (RTI)


    Zero Depreciation car insurance covers the full cost of repair or replacement of damaged parts, without taking depreciation into account.

    Return to Invoice (RTI) insurance covers the cost of repair or replacement of damaged parts, along with the depreciated value of the vehicle.


    Covers the full cost of repair or replacement of damaged parts, without considering depreciation.

    Covers the cost of repair or replacement, along with the difference between the insured declared value (IDV) and the invoice value of the car.


    Lower premium, full coverage for damaged parts.

    Higher coverage, covers depreciation and invoice value difference.


    Higher premium compared to RTI insurance.

    Lower premium compared to Zero Depreciation insurance.

    Suitable for

    Newer vehicles with a higher value.

    Older vehicles with a lower value.



    In conclusion, Zero Depreciation and RTI car insurance both have their own set of benefits and drawbacks. Zero Depreciation insurance provides full coverage for the repair or replacement of damaged parts without considering depreciation. On the other hand, RTI insurance covers the cost of repair or replacement, along with the depreciated value of the vehicle.

    The premium for Zero Depreciation insurance is higher compared to RTI insurance. It is best suited for newer vehicles with a higher value, whereas RTI insurance is more suitable for older vehicles with a lower value. Before choosing between the two, it's important to carefully evaluate your needs and budget. You can also consult with your insurance provider to find the best option for your specific circumstances.

  • Different Types of Car Body Styles in India

    by Almog Ramrajkar | May 04, 2023

    The first stage to becoming obsessed with cars or owning one is understanding the fundamentals. When buying a car, the first element you may want to consider is the type of vehicle that will best meet your requirements. Knowing the different car types available in the Indian automobile market will increase your chances of finding your ideal car.

    The current car market in India offers a wide range of choices. We have anything you can think of, including hatchbacks, sedans, MUVs, SUVs, convertibles, coupes, and pickup trucks. But with so many sizes, shapes, and designs, it can take time to choose the ideal vehicle.

    In order to facilitate your journey, we have comprehensively explained the different car body styles in India and made a list of the most popular cars in each category.

    Types of Cars in India

    One of the difficult choices you might have to make during the buying process is what kind of car to buy.

    • If you live in a rural region without traffic congestion, you can choose a big car with enough room for your needs.
    • Those living in cities must be concerned about traffic, mainly if they rely on a vehicle for both their daily commute and weekend excursions.

    Most significantly, one should also consider the car user’s family. Although there are countless ways to categorise vehicles based on their bodies, we have limited the list to a few famous types of car bodies in India. You can choose the best car for your requirements with the help of this succinct description of car body styles.


    • The most ubiquitous form of vehicle in India is a hatchback. A small car with four doors and a boot is called a hatchback. It's best to seat only four persons at a time for greater comfort.
    • Fuel economy is one of the many benefits of a hatchback, and it scores high on this count. Hatchbacks give superior mileage than other vehicles because they are compact and lightweight.
    • The most congested city streets, where car dimensions are a significant consideration for all vehicles, are best suited for hatchbacks.
    • Parking in most places can be a nightmare, and hatchbacks are the best car models for parking convenience.
    • A hatchback’s tiny boot room is one of its drawbacks, making these vehicles unsuitable for transporting large amounts of luggage.
    • The Tata Indica, Maruti Alto, Hyundai i10, Maruti Swift, Ford Figo, etc., are some of India’s top hatchbacks.


    • Another segment that is very popular in the Indian industry is sedans. These vehicles are perfect for families because they provide enough room for all needs.
    • A sedan has four passenger doors and one for the boot, similar to a hatchback. The boot space in sedans is significantly more extensive and accommodates luggage of various sizes.
    • Manufacturers occasionally add boot space to existing hatchback cars to turn them into sedans. One of the best instances of this conversion is the Maruti Swift Dzire.
    • In general, sedans are considered more elegant than hatchback automobiles. There are countless high-end cars on the market today that are both fashionable and cosy.
    • Many subvariants are within the sedan category, and automakers are constantly introducing new body styles.
    • Ford Fiesta, Mahindra Verito, Hyundai Verna, Honda Amaze, etc., are a few of the best sedans on the Indian market.

    Compact Sedan

    • The car market in India is complicated, and customers’ needs can occasionally vary from those in other nations. People buying compact sedans receive tax rebates from the Indian government.
    • These vehicles are less than four meters long.
    • Indian automakers created car body styles that are unique to India to reap the benefits of the pricing element. One such exclusive vehicle is the compact sedan.
    • Although these vehicles have four doors and a boot, they have much less room than a typical sedan. Tata Motors is the first company to reduce the length of the Indigo to create India’s first compact sedan, the Indigo CS (short for Compact Sedan).
    • Some of India’s top compact sedans are Honda Amaze, Suzuki Dzire, Hyundai Xcent, and Tata Tigor. 


    • A two-door vehicle with a slanted roofline and a sporty posture is called a coupe. The majority of these coupes have a strong motor and either have two seats or two additional smaller rear seats.
    • Four-door coupes are available nowadays, but their sporty traits have stayed the same.
    • Most Indian drivers do not favour this type of vehicle, but international car manufacturers are marketing them to a select group of motorists in India.
    • Coupe cars can reach triple-figure speeds in a few seconds because they are typically high-performance.
    • Some of India’s top coupes are Ford Mustang, Audi R8, and Mercedes Benz GLE Coupe.
  • Drink and Drive Fines in India

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 21, 2023

    In India, driving under the influence of liquor or drugs is considered a criminal offence and is punishable by law. If drugs get detected in the driver’s blood sample test, it will be a punishable offence, and the person will have to pay a drink driving penalty. In this article, we will discuss the fines and penalties for drunk driving in India and the process for paying these fines. The article also emphasises the importance of avoiding driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The legal drinking age in India varies from state to state, but the drinking and driving rules are the same across the country. It is essential to drive safely and responsibly to ensure a safe and smooth ride for everyone on the roads.

    What is the Fine for Drunk Driving in India?

    According to Section 185 of the Motor Vehicles Act, if a driver has more than 30 mg of alcohol in a sample of 100 ml of blood, it is considered a punishable offence. A drunk and drive fine will be applied accordingly. The fine for a first offence can be up to Rs 10,000; repeat offenders may face imprisonment for up to two years and a fine of up to Rs 15,000. These penalties are the same for all vehicles.

    It is important to avoid driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, as it can lead to serious consequences, including injury or death. To prevent drunk driving, individuals can plan by not drinking if they know they will be driving, booking a cab or autorickshaw, staying overnight with a friend or relative, picking a designated driver, and leaving their car at home.

    It is also essential to be aware of the legal drinking age in different states in India and to drink responsibly to avoid the drink and drive penalty.

    The legal drinking age in India varies from 18 to 25 years, depending on the state. Some states have banned alcohol entirely, while others have a legal drinking age of 25 years. Most states have a legal drinking age of 21 years. However, the drinking and driving rules, including the drunk driving penalty, are the same for all states, and it is illegal to drive under the influence of liquor or drugs.

  • What is Green Tax for Car and Bikes in India

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 21, 2023

    The term “Green Tax,” which also refers to environmental or pollution taxes, is an excise duty imposed on products that pollute the ecosystem. The economic theory claims that by incentivising households and businesses to adopt pollution-reduction practices, levies on emissions that create pollution will lessen the harm done to the ecosystem. Pollution is the expense of producing goods that the producer or polluter does not bear. Polluters who endanger the lives of other people and the environment are subject to vehicle green tax.

    Indirect taxes on alternative policies or associated products like accepted technology standards can cut pollution, but they might be costly. For instance, increasing the price of gas does not encourage drivers to maintain their cars' pollution-control systems. Since such taxes encourage polluters to reduce pollution, carbon taxes are economically advantageous.

    What is Green Tax?

    Due to the emissions from their outdated engines, which pollute the environment, older vehicles in the country are subject to a Green Tax. As a result, the Green Tax is a fixed fee that owners of vehicles must pay on their outdated cars.

    • This tax applies to both household and commercial vehicles. The amount of the Green Tax varies by state and depends on the type of car as well.
    • Older cars negatively impact the environment by releasing gases or smoke. This also significantly increases pollution. Large trucks transporting goods from one place to another also add to air pollution. Since the Indian government has placed a Green Tax on older vehicles, it is imperative to limit their use.
    • A higher Green Tax is applicable to vehicles registered in heavily polluted regions like Delhi.
    • The Green Tax, implemented to lessen pollution, only applies to gasoline and diesel vehicles. It does not apply to vehicles that run on electricity, compressed natural gas, or ethanol.
    • The government uses the funds raised from the Green Tax to construct facilities for measuring emissions. The Green Tax should encourage the country’s people to switch to cleaner vehicles.

    Why and When is Green Tax Levied on Vehicles?

    Given the quickly deteriorating state of our environment, the government has decided to take action to reduce pollution levels. The Green Tax, which levies a fee on vehicles that don’t meet specific requirements, is one such measure. The Indian government is contemplating imposing a green tax on vehicles at the time of renewal of their registration documents. The owner will therefore be liable for any environmental harm. Over-eight-year-old commercial and more than 15-year-old privately owned vehicles will be subject to vehicle green tax.

    There is a Green Tax imposed on those who drive polluting vehicles. Old cars with older motors are more likely to generate heavy pollution. The Green Tax acts as a behavioural restraint on people who continue to ignore global warming and drive polluting vehicles.

    The tax is a tool for encouraging people to upgrade to more ecologically friendly technology or, at the very least, vehicles with a more negligible impact. Numerous companies are currently developing two- and four-wheel vehicles with reduced pollution levels. Sales of electric scooters are rising as more people realise how important it is to transition to better forms of transportation. The Green Tax initiative seeks to promote and facilitate scooter users’ transition to greener models.

  • Electric, Petrol & Hybrid Cars: Which One is Best According to Your Needs

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 20, 2023

    We have all witnessed the increasing global concern about the impact of fossil fuel consumption on the environment. As a result, many of us have begun to question the efficiency and environmental sustainability of petrol cars. It's encouraging to see the automotive industry has been responding to these concerns by introducing alternative solutions such as hybrid and electric cars.

    Electric cars, powered solely by batteries, emit zero emissions and are incredibly efficient. On the other hand, hybrid vehicles combine petrol and electric power sources, resulting in lower emissions and better fuel efficiency. As a result, the debate on hybrid cars vs petrol cars, electric car vs hybrid car, electric car vs petrol car, and hybrid vs electric car has become increasingly prevalent among car users.

    Ultimately, the choice of electric, petrol, or hybrid car depends on each individual’s needs and preferences. We must take into account our budget, daily commute, environmental concerns, and overall driving preferences. This blog will help you explore each type of vehicle, analyse its pros and cons, and ultimately help you make an informed decision that meets your transportation needs while reducing your carbon footprint.

    What is an Electric Car?

    To get clarity on the EV vs petrol car debate, let us understand what an electric car is. Electric cars are becoming increasingly popular due to their eco-friendly nature and low operating costs.

    • An electric car is a vehicle that runs on an electric motor powered by a rechargeable battery pack. It doesn't have an internal combustion engine, which means there are no emissions produced from burning fuel.
    • Electric cars come in various types, including battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs).
    • BEVs are purely electric and run entirely on battery power, while PHEVs have both an electric motor and a petrol engine that work together. EREVs are similar to PHEVs, but their petrol engine only generates electricity to power the electric motor rather than directly powering the wheels.
    • Electric cars have several advantages, including lower fuel costs, reduced maintenance costs, and zero emissions. They also offer a smooth, quiet ride and instant torque for quick acceleration.
    • Electric cars also have drawbacks, such as limited driving range, longer recharge times, and higher upfront costs than petrol cars. These factors can make them less practical for long journeys or those who cannot afford the high initial purchase price.

    Overall, electric cars are a great choice for those who want to reduce their carbon footprint, save on fuel costs, and enjoy a quiet, smooth ride. However, they may not be suitable for everyone’s needs, and it's important to consider factors like driving range and charging infrastructure before making a purchase.

  • Things To Check After Getting Your Car Serviced

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 20, 2023

    Taking care of your car and ensuring it runs well takes work, but you don't have to be a technical genius to keep it in good shape. The hardest part of car servicing is knowing what to do and how often. By learning the basics regarding what your car demands and how frequently you should do regular maintenance, you can ensure your vehicle is running at its best.

    As an added advantage, if you can show that your car has been well cared for, you'll get the most money when it's time to sell it. And, of course, it's essential to know that the costs of maintaining the car aren't always cheap, but they can save you money in the long run by keeping your vehicle in good shape.

    The following is a car service checklist that requires your attention at different times of the year. You must check several of these factors often. It is important to follow your car maintenance plan and service period record.

    Checking Job Sheet

    • When you take your car to an authorised service centre for vehicle maintenance, you will receive a hard copy of the job card. When you hand the car to the service centre, you usually get the green-coloured customer copy. This is made of thin paper, while the company keeps a blue job card with a thicker piece of paper that is an exact duplicate of the customer’s green copy.
    • The job card has all the vital information about your car, like your car's registration number, VIN, Engine number, home address, cell phone number, Registration Number, date of registration, job card number, etc.
    • You can also write down any dents or scratches on the inventory check sheet on your car. Before you get the customer copy, the service centre agent writes down whether or not there is a stepladder, jack, toolkit, etc. The most vital part, getting the job done, comes next. It is either typed or written by hand.
    • The Service Advisor must write down all of the customer's complaints and needs on the job card since the same card goes to the shop floor.
    • The job card travels across various sections of the workshop and ensures that all the points noted are covered.

    Oils & Fluids

    • Engine oil keeps the parts inside and around the engine from rubbing against each other and wearing out too quickly. It also stops energy loss and cleans the engine to prevent rust. Check your car’s manual to determine when it’s time to change the oil in your engine.
    • Your car’s mechanic can also tell you when to bring your car in for an oil change. Most technicians will put an inscription on your window that says how many miles you must drive before you need a new oil change.
    • The coolant helps keep the engine at the right temperature and from getting too hot. It is also known as “antifreeze” because most coolants don’t freeze when the temperature drops below 0°C. Due to this, it’s vital to ensure that the radiator or tank is full. If there’s not sufficient liquid, pour more to fill the tube.
    • It’s best to have an expert examine and drain the coolant since it’s hazardous, pollutes the environment, and can cause skin irritation. According to how frequently you drive your car, you should change the oil about every 50,000 kilometres, every 2 to 4 years, or every 2 to 5 years. Every year, you must check the coolant amount.
  • Vehicle Fitness Certificate: Cars, Bikes & More

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 20, 2023

    Vehicle Fitness Certificate for Cars, Bikes & Other Vehicles

    In India, it is mandatory for all commercial vehicles to have a valid vehicle fitness certificate (FC). The Regional Transport Office (RTO) issues the FC after a thorough inspection process to ensure that the vehicle is fit to be driven on Indian roads. The certificate is crucial for compliance with legal requirements, ensuring road safety, preventing pollution, and avoiding unnecessary penalties. The article briefly explains various topics, such as how to apply for an FC online and offline and the necessary documents required for obtaining the certificate. It also highlights the importance of obtaining an FC, its validity period, and other related aspects.

    What is a Fitness Certificate (FC) of a vehicle?

    According to Indian legal requirements, it is mandatory for all motor vehicles to possess a valid vehicle fitness certificate. This is in addition to the registration certificate. The inspection process helps to identify technical faults, mechanical issues, emission issues, or any other problems related to the vehicle’s working condition. This process ensures that the vehicle is environmentally safe and technically and mechanically fit, thereby increasing on-road safety. Additionally, such inspections help to identify potential problems that could cause frequent breakdowns in the future. The fitness certificate issued by the RTO serves as an important tool to keep track of a vehicle’s condition, regardless of its type or capacity. By complying with the mandatory fitness certificate requirement, vehicle owners can ensure the safety of the environment, their own safety, and of others on the roads.

    Importance of Having Vehicle Fitness Certificate

    In India, possessing a Fitness Certificate (FC) for motor vehicles is crucial, and the following points highlight its importance.

    • Firstly, having an FC is mandatory for all vehicles in India. Commercial vehicles must always have an active certificate. If a vehicle owner fails to present the FC during an inspection, he/she may have to pay penalties.
    • Secondly, the FC is essential because it ensures that the vehicle is mechanically sound and safe to drive on Indian roads. The certificate is issued only after the vehicle has undergone a thorough inspection to assess its mechanical condition.
    • Thirdly, vehicular pollution is a significant problem in India, and old vehicles are major contributors to this issue. An FC makes sure that old vehicles do not lead to environmental pollution. Older vehicles produce harmful emissions. Hence fitness certificates are not issued for such vehicles, thereby ensuring that they do not ply on roads.

    Lastly, obtaining an FC saves vehicle owners from troubles such as non-compliance penalties imposed by the concerned authorities.

    How to Apply for a Vehicle Fitness Certificate


    These are the steps to apply for a vehicle fitness certificate online:

    • Go to the Parivahan portal’s authorised website.
    • Select the "Vehicle-Related Services" option in the Online Services section and click on it.
    • Choose the state of residence from the dropdown menu.
    • Enter the vehicle registration number on the following page and click on "Proceed."
    • Select "Apply for Fitness Certificate," read the instructions, acknowledge them, and click on "Proceed."
    • Enter the vehicle chassis number and registered mobile number and click on "Generate OTP."
    • View the vehicle details after entering the OTP and verify them. Fill in the vehicle insurance details and click on "Payment."
    • Pay the applicable fees using digital payment modes.
    • You will receive an application number; you can download an online receipt for future reference.

    Visit the RTO with the vehicle and necessary documents and undergo vehicle inspection. The RTO may suggest repairs if there are any defects or technical faults. Based on the result of the inspection, the RTO will issue the FC.


    To obtain a Fitness Certificate offline, you can download the necessary forms from the government’s online portal or obtain them from the RTO.

    • After filling out the forms and attaching the required documents, submit them to the RTO and pay the fees.
    • On the date assigned by the RTO, you must bring your vehicle for inspection.

    You also can renew your certificate offline. To renew the certificate offline, download the forms from the government website or get them from the RTO, fill them out, submit the documents, and pay the applicable fees.

    Documents Required to Apply for Vehicle Fitness Certificate

    Certain documents are necessary to obtain a new vehicle’s fitness certificate. These include:

    • A Letter of Intent from the State Transport Authority for commercial passenger vehicles
    • temporary registration, if any
    • a valid insurance certificate
    • a valid pollution certificate
    • the prescribed fees
    • a Roadworthy Certificate in Form 22
    • Sales Certification Form 21
    • Form 20

    When renewing the fitness certificate of a vehicle, the necessary documents include

    • a duplicate fitness certificate if required
    • a prescribed fee
    • road tax clearance proof
    • registration certificate
    • Form 25

    A duplicate fitness certificate gets issued if the original certificate is lost, stolen or damaged. To obtain a duplicate certificate, the requisite fees, an application on plain paper stating the date of issue/expiry of the certificate of fitness (CoF), a challan clearance from the transport department and traffic police, a photocopy of the fitness certificate if available, a tax clearance report from the account branch, and a police report is required.

  • RTO Fine For Using Tinted Glass in Car

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 20, 2023

    Tinted glass is a popular addition to cars in India because it protects car interiors from external environmental factors. However, there are strict rules surrounding the use of tinted glass in vehicles in India, and violating them can result in fines and penalties.

    In this article, we will essentially explore in detail the rules and regulations surrounding tinted glass in India, the fines and penalties for adding them to vehicles, and how tinted glasses can affect car insurance. We will also provide you with some of the popularly known tips on how to remove the tinted film from your car.

    What is Tinted Glass?

    Tinted glass has gained immense popularity due to its ability to reduce the amount of light transmitted through it. In India, it is not common for cars to come with built-in tinted glass. However, many people opt to have it added to their vehicles for various reasons, such as reducing heat, enhancing privacy, and improving the vehicle’s overall appearance.

    It is important to note that strict regulations surround the usage of tinted glass in India. According to Indian laws, car windows must have a minimum visibility of 70 per cent for rear and front glasses and 50 per cent for side glasses.

    Any modifications to the windows that reduce visibility below this level are considered illegal. While tinted glass can be a valuable addition to a vehicle, ensuring that the tinting gets done within legal limits set by Indian law is crucial.

    Several popular types of window tinting are available in the market, including dyed, metallised, hybrid, carbon, and ceramic. Every kind of tinting has unique benefits and drawbacks, and the choice will depend on the individual's needs and preferences.

    Why are Tinted Glass in Cars Banned in India?

    • Manufacturers of sun shades for vehicles are urging the Indian Transport Ministry to lift the Supreme Court ban on tinted glasses in vehicles.
    • In 2012, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India strictly banned the use of tinted films in vehicles due to several cases of crimes committed against women inside vehicles with tinted windows.
    • Currently, only car windows that the manufacturers have tinted are allowed.
    • While some popularly known manufacturers of tinted films have presented new technology that allows for greater visibility, Transport Ministry officials are not willing to compromise on their stand against tinted glasses
    • The Transport Ministry will only allow such glasses for security purposes, subject to permission from the Home Ministry and the police.
    • Poor visibility is another primary reason behind the ban on tinted glass for vehicles

    What are the RTO Fine and Rules for Applying Tinted Glass in Cars in India?

    One cannot use tinted glass as per Indian law, and a fine of Rs 100 gets imposed for the first offence of using car glass film not approved by the RTO.

    • Repeat offences lead to harsher consequences, and in 2019, 1.32 lakh cars were fined Rs 2.64 crores for violating this law.
    • The RTO has laid down several rules and regulations that every law-abiding individual must actively follow to drive cars legally on Indian roads. Violating these rules (especially for repeat offences) can always potentially result in fines and penalties. Thus, it is vital to follow RTO rules to avoid penalties and maintain legal status while driving on Indian roads.
    • Before using window tinting, it is essential to be aware of the applicable legalities. The RTO-approved sun control film for car price may vary as different manufacturers and car décor shops offer various options in terms of quality. It would be wise to know the rules before spending money and getting caught in legal issues.
    • Using high-quality sun control films that comply with the RTO’s rules can help reduce heat and glare and provide privacy without breaking any laws.

    As a car owner, it is essential to ensure that you comply with the law to avoid being penalised and facing legal consequences while driving on Indian roads. Being informed and following the rules can help ensure a safe and hassle-free driving experience for everyone on the road.>

  • Hyderabad Traffic Police Challan Rules

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 20, 2023

    Hyderabad, the capital of Telangana, is known for its rich cultural heritage, food, and of course, its traffic. In case you are a resident or a visitor to the beautiful yet populous city of Hyderabad, we’re going to talk about something that’s very close to our hearts (and wallets): The Hyderabad traffic challan. Yes, we all know how frustrating it can be to be at the receiving end of the “Hyderabad police challan.” Hyderabad Traffic Rules are enforced strictly by the traffic police to ensure the safety of the commuters on the road.

    But fear not. In this blog, we’ll take you through everything you need to know about Hyderabad traffic rules and Hyderabad traffic fines. We’ll also give you a step-by-step guide on how to pay your Hyderabad challan, both online and offline, and how to check your e-challan status. So, buckle up, and let’s dive into the world of Hyderabad traffic challans!

    Hyderabad Traffic Rules

    The following is a list of important Hyderabad traffic rules that all drivers should follow:

    Traffic Rule


    Always wear a seatbelt

    It is mandatory for both the driver and passengers to wear seatbelts while driving.

    Carry necessary documents

    It is mandatory to carry a valid driving license, registration certificate, and insurance documents while driving. Else you will face a traffic challan.

    Follow speed limits

    Overspeeding is a major cause of accidents on Hyderabad roads and may also result in a Hyderabad police challan.

    Obey traffic signals and signs

    Always follow traffic signals and signs, such as red lights, stop signs, and yield signs.

    Avoid using your cell phone while you’re  driving

    Using a mobile phone while driving can distract you from the road and cause accidents. It can also result in a Hyderabad traffic challan.

    Do not drink and drive

    Driving under the impact of alcohol or drugs is strictly prohibited and can result in heavy fines or even imprisonment.

    Wear a helmet while riding a two-wheeler

    It is mandatory to wear a helmet while riding a two-wheeler to ensure your safety. Failure to do so can result in a Hyderabad traffic challan

    Do not overload the vehicle

    Overloading is a serious offence; never overload your vehicle with passengers or goods, as it may lead to hefty fines and suspension of your driving license.

    Use turn signals

    Always use turn signals while making a lane change, taking a turn, or making a U-turn to indicate the traffic behind you about your manoeuvre and prevent accidents.

    No wrong-side overtaking

    Overtaking a vehicle from the wrong side can be dangerous, especially for two-wheelers. Do not overtake a four-wheeler from the left side, and give proper indications to the driver before attempting an overtake.


    Hyderabad Traffic Fines

    The city is notorious for its heavy traffic, which often leads to violations of traffic rules and regulations. To discourage such violations, the Hyderabad Traffic Police Department has implemented a system of fines for offenders. The following table shows the various traffic violations and the corresponding fines imposed by the Hyderabad Traffic Police Department:


    Traffic Challan Rates


    If one drives without a valid license

    Rs 5,000

    If one drive’s a vehicle that does not have a valid motor insurance policy

    ·       Rs 2,000 for the first violation

    ·       Rs 4,000 for the subsequent violation

    If one drives dangerously

    Rs 5,000

    If one is driving without a permit

    Rs 10,000

    If one gets caught using a mobile phone while vehicle driving

    Rs 5,000

    If one is driving under the influence of intoxicants

    ·       Rs 10,000 in fine and/or a prison sentence of 6 months for the first violation

    ·       Rs 15,000 in fine and/or 2 years in prison for any subsequent violation

    If one violates the road rules

    Rs 500


    Rs 1,000 - Rs 2,000

    If one drives a vehicle that is unauthorised and does not have a valid license

    Rs 5,000

    No seat belt

    Rs 1,000

    General Offence


    Rs 500

    If one does not allow emergency vehicles to pass

    Rs 10,000

    Juvenile offences

    Rs 25,000, along with 3 years of prison

  • What is a Standalone Own Damage Car Insurance Policy?

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 18, 2023

    Are you tired of feeling like you are paying for car insurance that does not quite fit your needs? Maybe you are looking for coverage that specifically protects your car from damages caused by your actions without involving a third party. Or perhaps you are simply overwhelmed by the sheer number of car insurance policies out there, each with its jargon and fine print. Well, take a deep breath and relax because we are here to help. In this article, we will be diving into the world of standalone own-damage car insurance policies to help you understand what’s in it and what’s not covered.

    What is Standalone Own Damage Insurance?

    Standalone own damage insurance is a type of car insurance policy that provides coverage for damage to your vehicle caused by events such as an accident, theft, fire, or natural disaster. The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) introduced the concept of standalone own-damage insurance in September 2018 to increase consumer choice and provide more flexible coverage options. However, you can avail of this coverage if your car has active third-party liability insurance.

    If you’re still a bit confused about own damage insurance meaning, let us dig deeper. For those unfamiliar, "own damage" (OD) refers to the harm done to your own property (in this context, your car). If your insurance has an OD clause, it will pay to fix your automobile if it is damaged. It's also possible to refer to this kind of insurance as "own damage" (OD) coverage, which stands on its own. But, third-party liability insurance refers specifically to a policy that does not provide coverage for the policyholder's damages but only covers damages to third parties. For instance, if you accidentally ram your vehicle into your neighbour's car, your auto insurance will pay to fix your neighbour's automobile. But you will end up paying for the cost of repairing your own vehicle. 

    This is where a standalone OD insurance policy is handy and helps you save money.

    Features of Standalone OD Car Insurance Policy

    Here are some key features of standalone own-damage insurance in India:

    Comprehensive coverage: Standalone own-damage insurance provides coverage for a wide range of damages to your own vehicle, including accidents, thefts, fires, vandalism, and natural disasters.

    No-fault coverage: Unlike third-party liability insurance, which only covers damages to other people's property and injuries, standalone own-damage insurance covers damages to your own vehicle regardless of who is at fault in an accident.

    Add-ons: You can enhance your standalone own damage insurance policy by purchasing add-ons. This will provide you with coverage for zero depreciation, engine protection, lock and key protection, roadside assistance coverage, and many more.

    Discounts: If you have installed safety devices in your car, have a good driving record, and renew your policy on time, your insurer will give you a discount on your standalone own damage insurance premiums. You can lower the insurance cost by applying the no-claim bonus reward when renewing your car insurance policy.

    Do note that there are certain exclusions too. For example, a standalone OD insurance policy will not provide coverage under certain circumstances, such as any damage to the vehicle due to the owner’s carelessness or driving without a valid license.

  • Benefits of Pay As You Drive Insurance

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 18, 2023

    As per the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act, car insurance is compulsory in India. But if one does not drive his/her car much or owns more than one car, it can become a financial burden. If you're wondering about a solution, read on to know more.

    To avoid paying hefty insurance premiums in such situations, you can avail of pay as you drive car insurance. This innovative policy has gained popularity, which we will explore in detail in this article. We will explain how pay as you drive car insurance works, its features, inclusions, and exclusions. We will also look into tips to lower the premium with pay as you drive car insurance. By the end of this article, we hope to provide a comprehensive understanding of pay as you drive car insurance and its benefits to help our readers make an informed decision regarding this policy.

    What is Pay as You Drive Car Insurance?

    This implies “usage-based” car insurance. It allows one to pay for insurance based on the distance a person drives and how frequently he/she uses the vehicle, rather than a flat fee. This means that those who drive their cars less pay a lesser amount as a premium, which can be beneficial for those who do not use their cars frequently. It is also known as pay as you go car insurance or pay per mile car insurance.

    In India, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) has allowed insurers to introduce tech-enabled concepts, including pay as you drive car insurance. One of the key advantages of PAYD car insurance is that it benefits those who do not use their car frequently. For instance, people who work from home, use public transport, or have multiple vehicles may not need to use their car frequently, resulting in lower premiums for them. PAYD car insurance can also benefit those who drive safely and follow traffic rules, as they can avail of discounts on their insurance premiums.

    In addition, PAYD car insurance can encourage responsible driving behaviour as drivers become more aware of their driving habits and strive to drive more safely and cautiously. This benefits the driver and other road users, making roads safer for everyone.

    Overall, pay per mile car insurance is a useful innovation in the world of car insurance that can provide benefits for both drivers and insurers. It provides a fairer way of determining premiums and encourages responsible driving habits, making it a win-win for everyone involved.

    How Does Pay as You Drive Car Insurance Work?

    Pay as you go car insurance is an excellent policy for individuals who don’t frequently drive or have low mileage, as it allows them to save money on their car insurance premiums. Although this policy provides the necessary third-party liability coverage for the duration of the plan and also covers own damage, the coverage is dependent on the distance travelled.

    The premium for pay per mile car insurance is calculated based on the number of kilometres driven by the driver. If a person drives the car for less than 15,000 km in the relevant year, the insured is eligible for the PAYD policy. The number of miles or kilometres travelled is determined through odometer readings declared by the insured.

    Those eligible for a pay as you drive car insurance plan can also avail of a discount of up to 10% on their “own-damage” insurance premium. The claim settlement process for the PAYD plan is similar to any other car insurance policy.

    Overall, pay as you go car insurance is an excellent option for those who do not frequently use their vehicles. It is important to note that if the insured exceeds the specified mileage limit, the person may have to pay an additional premium. Therefore, it is essential to calculate the estimated mileage beforehand to avoid any surprises in the future.

    Features of the Pay As You Drive Car Insurance Policy

    The PAYD policy is a significant instrument for those who do not drive much or own more than one car. This type of plan helps these people save significantly on their insurance premiums. The notable features of the PAYD insurance plan are:

    • The premium payable is calculated based on the distance the insured car travels. Hence, the policyholder only pays for the distance he/she drives, making it an ideal option for those who drive occasionally.
    • Odometer readings determine the number of kilometres travelled; this is usually declared by the insured.
    • Under such a policy, insurers offer a discount on the premium on the frequency of the vehicle's usage and how many miles the car has travelled.
    • PAYD policyholders can customise their policies according to their driving habits and preferences.
    • Since PAYD is usage-based, it is cost-effective compared to traditional car insurance policies.
    • This policy provides coverage for your own damage and also third-party liability coverage.
    • PAYD insurance policies promote eco-friendly driving by encouraging drivers to drive less, which helps reduce carbon emissions.

    PAYD policies offer a valuable alternative to traditional car insurance plans. The customisable features of PAYD policies provide a flexible and cost-effective solution for those who want to pay a premium based on their actual usage.

  • Is CTP Included in Comprehensive Insurance?

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 12, 2023

    The Indian law mandates that all car owners in India have a third-party insurance policy. This reduces the policyholder’s financial responsibility for any harm a third party suffers due to the insured car. A surveyor will examine the damages and verify the repair costs before the insurance company pays the claim.

    A comprehensive car insurance policy is a package that covers both parties involved in an accident. It provides comprehensive coverage for damages to the insured car and third-party liabilities and policyholders. While it is not mandatory, a comprehensive policy compensates for third-party liabilities from accidents caused by the policyholder.

    Difference Between CTP and Comprehensive Cover

    Comprehensive insurance comes at a higher price but provides complete coverage. Its salient features are listed below:

    • complete coverage for both parties involved in an accident
    • offers additional add-ons
    • No Claim Bonus if a policyholder doesn't make a claim in a policy year

    Third-party car insurance is a basic policy that covers the following:

    • offers protection to a third-party car or person who met with an accident involving you
    • personal accident coverage for your injuries, but it doesn't cover the damages to your car
    • premium rate is low and pre-determined by the IRDAI, making it a cheaper option
    • suitable for those driving an old vehicle or people who drive their car less often
    • doesn't offer any customisation options or add-ons

    Although the premium is comparatively higher than a third-party insurance policy, a comprehensive car insurance plan provides a wider scope of coverage.

    Is Compulsory Third-Party Cover Included in Comprehensive Insurance?

    A comprehensive motor insurance policy integrates third-party coverage.

    • Comprehensive car insurance combines both third-party and own damage or first-party insurance
    • Actively provides complete protection for third-party liabilities and offers coverage for damages to the insured car from various causes like accidents, falling objects, fire, and vandalism
    • Covers damages to third-party property and accidental physical injuries
    • Covers damages to the insured car from natural disasters, such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes, and man-made disasters like thefts
    • Provides add-on covers like engine protection, medical expenses, accessories cover, and zero depreciation cover to increase the scope of coverage
    • You don’t have to purchase third-party insurance as a separate policy
  • How to Switch Third Party Insurance to Comprehensive?

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 10, 2023

    Are you tired of the limited coverage your third-party car insurance policy provides? Do you want to broaden the protection for your vehicle and yourself? Well, converting to a comprehensive policy might just be the solution you need! However, before making the switch, there are crucial factors you need to consider. In this article, we will guide you through the changes you must remember while converting to a comprehensive policy. We will also walk you through the simple process of switching your insurance policy and getting the coverage you deserve.

    Consider Changes While Switching to Comprehensive Policy

    When considering switching from a third-party car insurance policy to a comprehensive one, there are a few important factors to keep in mind. 

    • Premium cost:

    A third-party policy only covers liabilities related to third-party involvement in an accident in car insurance. It includes third-party property damage, injuries, and legal liabilities. However, it does not cover the car's damage. Switching to a comprehensive policy offers broader coverage. Understandably, with an increased scope of coverage comes an increased cost. The premium cost depends upon factors like make and model, riders, age of the vehicle, etc.

    • Coverage scope:

    In terms of coverage, a comprehensive policy will protect your car from damage caused by natural calamities, fire, vandalism, and theft. If your car gets stolen, it is crucial to inform the insurer and the police as soon as possible. Make sure you obtain a non-traceable report from the police, as it is necessary during the claim processing.

    • IDV is crucial:

    When setting the IDV for your car, ensure that it is accurate and reflects the current market value. This is the maximum amount your insurer will pay in the event of theft or severe damage to your vehicle. Deductibles are key considerations because they are the amount you must pay out of your pocket at the time of claim settlement.

    • NCB:

    If you renew your comprehensive car insurance policy without raising a claim, you will be eligible for a No Claim Bonus (NCB), which helps in saving money on your policy premium. It can be as high as 50% for the fifth consecutive year of no claims.

    Process to Switch Your Insurance Policy

    Switching from a third-party policy to a comprehensive one is a great pick. The process is easy, and you can do this online. Let’s go over the steps.

    • Begin by researching and comparing policies offered by various insurance providers. Once you have selected a provider, navigate to their car insurance page and enter your car number. 
    • Skip the past policy number section and proceed to buy a comprehensive policy. It is vital to accurately set the car’s Insured Declared Value (IDV) and purchase any additional coverage or add-ons you may require. Be sure to read the policy’s terms and conditions carefully before making a payment.
    • Depending on your insurer, your vehicle may be subject to a thorough inspection prior to policy issuance. If an inspection is necessary, you will need to choose a date.

    • After your application is approved, you will receive your motor insurance policy in your mailbox within a few days.

    Remember, inspections may not be necessary for each renewal, but keeping your insurer updated on any changes to your vehicle or driving habits is vital.

  • What Is CPA Cover In Car Insurance?

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Apr 05, 2023

    CPA (Compulsory Personal Accident) coverage in India is mandatory for all motor insurance policies, including third-party and comprehensive insurance. This ensures that you drive following the rules and regulations. This coverage provides insurance against death or disability resulting from an accident, with personal accident coverage. The policy payout percentage varies based on the type of injury sustained. Personal accident coverage can protect individuals from costly medical bills and vehicle repairs.

    If you purchase a comprehensive car insurance policy, your vehicle gets protection from various risk factors, including third-party liability. The CPA cover in car insurance is mandatory for comprehensive policies as well as for new vehicles purchased after September 1, 2018. It is important to note that you must pay the premium for CPA for the first three years. The comprehensive insurance policy provides protection from theft, vandalism, and natural disasters. Add-on covers can be purchased as needed. You can customise your policy to meet your individual needs.

    All insurance companies are required to offer CPA to all policyholders. Both third-party and comprehensive policyholders must have at least Rs 15 lakh of coverage. You can pay a higher premium to enhance your scope of coverage. Many insurance companies provide various options to meet your specific needs.  

    Benefits of a Compulsory Personal Accident Policy Cover

    • The process of purchasing personal accident insurance is straightforward, with minimal documentation and no medical tests required.
    • Accident insurance is essential in preparing for unexpected situations resulting in disability.
    • Accident coverage compensates the policyholder's family, enabling them to maintain their lifestyle and pay off liabilities after the insured person's demise. Knowing that your family will be financially secure even in your absence provides peace of mind.
    • Personal accident policies offer worldwide coverage with no geographical limitations to compensation. Claim processes are simple, and ambulance expenses are usually covered.


    Before purchasing a car insurance policy, reviewing and understanding its terms and conditions, inclusions, and exclusions is crucial. Policyholders can ensure appropriate coverage to protect themselves and their families by doing so.

  • Drive your car without any worries; get these car insurance add-on covers!

    by tanvi staging | Feb 09, 2023

    Vehicle purchase document

    The first document you need to collect is the original invoice of the vehicle. Check for the owner's name, chassis number, engine number and other essential details. It will help you confirm the real owner of the car or bike and also help you determine whether the vehicle is being sold for the first time. If the seller is not able to provide it, he/she should give a receipt to serve the purpose.

    This add-on eliminates the possibility of out-of-pocket expenses and gives you complete peace of mind as you know you will be compensated fully by the insurer. It is highly recommended for new and premium cars since it helps to decrease the expenditures involving losses.

    These add-on covers or motor insurance riders can ensure 360-degree protection of your car against all contingencies

    A car is an essential asset, and it must be protected under a reliable insurance plan. Third-party motor insurance, which is mandatory by law, is no longer considered ‘sufficient’ to compensate for the losses arising due to accidents. While a comprehensive car insurance policy covers your car and third party losses too, having add-ons further fortify the coverage.

    There are many car insurance add-ons that you can opt for by paying a nominal premium. This article will cover such add-on covers, which you can buy to cover losses due to untoward incidents. Let’s get started.

    Engine protection cover

    The engine is undoubtedly the heart of any car. Surprisingly, ordinary comprehensive car insurance policies do not offer any coverage for damages to the engine. Thus, adding an engine protection cover becomes crucial to safeguard this vital part of your car from the damages. This insurance cover is beneficial for expensive cars, whose engine repair costs can be very high. It takes care of costs against damages to engine parts, differential parts and gear box parts. A standard car insurance policy doesn’t generally cover these.

    Note that there are certain exclusions under this add-on. For instance, if you have made repeated attempts to start the engine when your car is submerged in water, it’s considered a deliberate attempt to damage the engine. In this case, the insurer will reject your claim. Also, if you try driving your car with a damaged bonnet, there are chances of lubricating oils entering the engine. In this scenario too, your insurer can reject your claim.

    Zero depreciation cover

    A car’s value begins to depreciate once it exits the showroom. Over the years, it comes down significantly. In case of any insurance claim, the insurer would compensate you after factoring in the depreciated amount. However, things are different with a zero depreciation cover. It helps to protect your car against all kinds of physical damages without taking into consideration the depreciation factor.

    This add-on eliminates the possibility of out-of-pocket expenses and gives you complete peace of mind as you know you will be compensated fully by the insurer. It is highly recommended for new and premium cars since it helps to decrease the expenditures involving losses.

  • Hybrid Car—Types, Advantages, Hybrid vs. Electric

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Feb 06, 2023


    Hybrid is the latest buzzword in the automobile industry. Automobile engineers all around the world are actively working on developing and improving hybrid cars. Despite the high cost, hybrid cars are gradually gaining popularity among car users across the world.

    Unlike traditional combustion engine cars, hybrid cars address the crucial and urgent global agenda of environmental preservation. With global warming and increasing environmental pollution, any innovation that reduces or restricts carbon footprint is a welcome step. Hybrid cars make this possible and are sustainable. So, what is a hybrid car? Today, we will discuss all you need to know about hybrid electric cars in India.

    What is a hybrid car?

    Simply put, hybrid cars run on two sources of power. Confused about what is a hybrid car? Don’t be. Read on.

    • Hybrid cars come with one electric motor and one Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) which is the usual fuel-run petrol or diesel engine.
    • Hybrid cars can switch between the electric motor and the fuel-run engine or use both engines together as and when needed.
    • Since these cars do not run on fuel power only, they come with way better fuel economy.
    • The usage of the electric motor along with a fossil fuel-based engine reduces the rate of use of fuels such as petrol and diesel, thus restricting carbon emissions.
    • Besides environmental preservation, hybrid cars have an edge in terms of efficiency. Because hybrid cars use both electric and fuel power, they offer higher efficiency.
    • When brakes are applied in a hybrid car, excess power is generated which is used to recharge the batteries. Subsequently, there is a higher mileage range in hybrid cars.
    • To replenish their batteries, hybrid cars can use the ICE engine as well.

    How does a hybrid car work?

    The sources of power for hybrid electric cars include—an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors powered by the energy stored in batteries.

    Unlike standard electric vehicles, a hybrid electric car cannot be plugged into a charging point to charge the battery. Instead, the batteries are charged either using the regenerative braking technique and/or by using the internal combustion engine.

    Since the car has an extra source of power from the electric motor, these cars work perfectly fine with relatively smaller fuel engines. The battery also aids in auxiliary loads and restricts engine idling when it is stopped. The combined effect of these features and the operational structure of the hybrid cars enhance fuel efficiency without compromising power, performance, and mileage.

    Difference between a hybrid and an electric car

    While we have discussed the basics of hybrid cars, it is essential to identify how a hybrid electric car is different from an electric car. The main difference to quote in a hybrid car vs electric cars discussion is their source of engine power.

    In hybrid cars, there are two types of engines—an internal combustion engine that runs on petrol or diesel, and one or more electric motor(s). Meanwhile, electric vehicles do not use any petrol or diesel. They derive power from a single source—electric motors.

    This major difference between hybrid and electric cars leads to a series of differences in their performance, operation, and price. Refer to the table below to understand the differences between hybrid and electric cars:


    Hybrid Cars

    Electric Cars

    Source of power

    Electricity as well as petrol and diesel

    DC electricity using a battery pack


    Not needed


    Efficiency of fuel

    Dependent on ICE and battery range

    Dependent on battery range only

    Level of emissions

    Higher than electric cars

    Lower than the ICE and hybrid cars

    Engine type

    Electric motor and internal combustion engine (ICE)

    Electric motor(s)


    Slightly higher than usual ICE cars

    Higher than both ICE vehicles and hybrid vehicles

  • Vehicle Scrappage Policy in India

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Feb 03, 2023

    Old, unfit, and ill-maintained vehicles are one of the prime contributors to environmental pollution. The Vehicle Scrappage Policy was introduced in India to mitigate this problem. The policy nullifies the re-registration of cars that are above 20 years old. For commercial vehicles, the threshold is 15 years as they face extensive and heavy usage compared to personal vehicles. Vehicle Scrappage Policy is a ground-breaking step on the part of the government both in terms of pollution control and vehicle management. Here’s all you need to know about Vehicle Scrappage Policy and its benefits.

    What is Vehicle Scrappage Policy in India?

    An initiative of the Government of India, Vehicle Scrappage Policy focuses on taking old and unfit vehicles off the road and scrapping them. Let us look at it in detail:

    • The idea behind the scrappage policy is to gradually develop an ecosystem that phases out vehicles contributing to pollution by exaggerated measures. Most of these are old and unfit vehicles.
    • The scrap policy is expected to significantly and effectively reduce the carbon footprint caused by vehicle emissions.
    • The vehicle scrappage policy will be brought into force starting 1st April 2023 for Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs).
    • For other Commercial Vehicles and Private Vehicles, the scrappage policy will be effective from 1st June 2024.
    • Commercial vehicles and private vehicles that are older than 15 years and 20 years, respectively, will have to undergo a fitness test. If these vehicles do not get clearance under the fitness test, they must be scrapped.

    Vehicle Scrappage Policy 2019 Highlights

    Apart from the pollution control measure, the scrappage policy is also seen as a potential catalyst for the sluggish automobile sector, which witnessed a massive downturn in 2019. Though in 2020, post-Diwali, the sector did witness some improvement, it is far from satisfactory. The vehicle scrappage policy is expected to create demand for new vehicles, as the old and unfit vehicles will be phased out.

    The key highlights of the scrappage policy are:

    • The primary objective of the policy is to scrap unfit cars and bikes
    • All the rules and regulations surrounding the scrappage policy will be outlined by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH)
    • According to the MoRTH, scrapping old vehicles will make the owners eligible for some benefits.
    • This policy will help in reducing pollution density. This is subjective to the existing pollution density of a place.
    • This administrative policy will pave the demand for safe, technologically updated, and environment-friendly vehicles.

    Updated Vehicle Scrappage Policy 2021 Highlights

    The vehicle scrapping policy in India was introduced to take old and unfit cars and bikes off the road. The main objective behind the scrappage policy was to come up with an effective and feasible measure to check the high carbon emission caused by unfit cars. The recent review highlighted some significant additional aspects of the policy. These are:

    • Checking pollution by scrapping vehicles that do not pass the fitness test
    • Higher safety for passengers, vehicles, and pedestrians
    • Employment generation in the automobile industry
    • Developing a formal and organised vehicle scrappage sector
    • Improving fuel efficiency
    • Reducing the cost of maintenance
    • Better and higher access to cost-efficient raw materials for industries such as automobile, steel, and electronics


    Given below is the timeline of how the policy will be brought into force:


    Tentative Timeline

    Declaring rules of vehicle fitness test

    21st October 2021

    Scrapping PSU and government vehicles that are more than 15 years old

    01st April 2022

    Commencement of fitness test of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs)

    01st April 2023

    Commencement of fitness test of Commercial Vehicles (CVs) and Private Vehicles (PVs)

    01st June 2024

    Benefits of the Vehicle Scrappage Policy

    Let us see how the vehicle scrappage policy will help the environment, vehicle owners, the automobile industry, and the economy as a whole.

    • As mentioned earlier, the scrappage policy will help reduce pollution and contribute to environmental preservation.
    • Currently, approximate estimates show that there are 51 lakh light vehicles (both private and commercial) that are more than 20 years old. This is an estimate of only light vehicles. Scrapping old and unfit vehicles will create demand in the automobile industry, as the old ones will now be replaced with new vehicles.
    • There will be additional job creation in the automobile sector. New scrappage stations will enhance the employment scope in the industry.
    • The nature of demand for vehicles will get augmented for good. There will be a demand for comparatively safer and technologically upgraded vehicles that come with better and superior features.
    • This policy will provide a major push to the recycling industry. This will not only make the recycling sector more active but create jobs in this industry as well. In addition, it will also create further improvement in the R&D of waste and recycling management.
    • Scrapping old and unfit vehicles may come with significant tax benefits for vehicle owners.
    • For parts that are fine and fit, vehicle owners have the scope to get the best possible resale price.

    How does scrapping your car affect insurance?

    The registration certificate must be cancelled for the scrapping of a car. Your insurer must be informed of your car’s scrapping. When a car is scrapped, under the vehicle scrappage policy, its registration is automatically cancelled, as it is no more fit to be driven on the roads. Consequently, the insurance company also cancels the vehicle insurance policy associated with the concerned car. The cancellation of the car insurance plan and the registration certificate is necessary to prevent the mishandling and theft of pre-existing vehicle information.

    Listed below are some important aspects of how car scrapping under the vehicle scrappage policy affects car insurance:

    • Since your vehicle insurance policy gets cancelled, you do not have to pay premiums going forward.
    • If you owe any refund from your vehicle insurance provider for the premium that has already been paid, ahead of the scrapping, it will be calculated on a pro-rata basis.
    • Note, the year when you give your car for scrapping if you have raised a claim earlier, you cannot cancel the insurance plan. It will be cancelled in the succeeding year.
  • RTO New Vehicle Registration Process

    by Almog Ramrajkar | Feb 03, 2023

    Buying your dream car or bike brings you unmatched joy. You may have been eyeing the model you love, researching about it, saving up money, and making plans around it, but have you thought about registering it? If not, then you must. 

    In India, you must register your brand-new vehicle at the Regional Transport Office (RTO), and get a new vehicle registration number to be able to take it out on the road. If you are caught driving your new car without a registration number and certificate, you will have to pay hefty fines, and in some cases, you may even face imprisonment.

    Registering your vehicle is mandatory and there is no point delaying it. Therefore, once you pay for your car or bike, initiate the registration process. Here’s how you can do it.

    How do you register your new vehicle?

    To get a new vehicle registration number, register your bike or car by following one of the two methods mentioned below:

    1. Register your vehicle yourself

    You can always register your vehicle yourself. If you plan to register your new vehicle in a different state or city, it is best to do it yourself. Just visit the nearest RTO, submit the necessary documents, pay the required fee, and get your vehicle inspected.

    After the documents are cross-checked and the vehicle is inspected, if all is fine, the new vehicle registration number will be issued in no time.

    2. Get your vehicle registered by the dealer

    If you don’t want to take the load and hassles of visiting the RTO, standing in the queue, and dealing with the documents, you can simply ask your dealer to get the registration done.

    In that case, your vehicle will be brought to the showroom only after the registration process is completed. By paying a service charge to your dealer, you can easily get your new car registration done without much effort.

    Steps to register your new vehicle at the RTO

    If you plan to pursue new RTO registration of your vehicle yourself, then follow the steps below:

    Step 1: Visit the nearest RTO. Take your new car or bike along with you.

    Step 2: Fill out the registration form and submit it along with other necessary documents.

    Step 3: Post submission of the form and the documents, the RTO will check them.

    Step 4: Meanwhile, pay the RTO charges for the new vehicle registration. The charge may differ for bikes and cars. Also, pay the road tax and collect the receipt of both payments.

    Step 5: A designated RTO inspector will inspect the vehicle.

    Step 6: Vehicle details such as the make and model, fuel type, engine capacity, and more will be recorded and uploaded to the central database.

    Step 7: The Superintendent of the RTO will verify the uploaded data.

    Step 8: The Assistant Regional Transport Officer (ARTO) will approve the registration of the vehicle.

    Step 9: Once the ARTO approves the registration, the Registration Certificate (RC) and a corresponding RC smartcard will be generated.

    Step 10: When the RC is ready, it will be sent to your registered address via post.

    Can you register your vehicle online?

    No, you cannot get new car registration or two-wheeler bike registration done online. It is extremely important to note that the e-portal of Parivahan cannot be used for new vehicle registration online. It can be used only for the renewal of vehicle registration.

    This is because a new car registration or a new two-wheeler bike registration essentially requires a physical inspection of the vehicle at the RTO. Since the physical presence of the vehicle is compulsory for new vehicle registration, you cannot register a car or bike online.

    How to apply for a new number plate?

    Every motor vehicle must display its unique registration number on the High-Security Registration Plates (HSRPs) fixed on the front and back of the vehicle. Aluminium-made and colour-graded HSRPs cannot be tempered.

    This plate is attached to the vehicle using two non-reusable locks. However, you can get a new bike number plate or car number plate online and offline.

    To apply for a new number plate online, follow these steps:

    Step 1: Visit the RTO website of your state.

    Step 2: Submit all necessary details like your name, address, contact number, car registration number, chassis number, and more.

    Step 3: Next, select the vehicle class, whether it is used for commercial or personal use.

    Step 4: Pay the required fee and collect the payment receipt.

    Step 5: You will get the acknowledgement notification that your HSRP has been created and dispatched.

    Alternatively, if you do not have easy access to the RTO website or you are not comfortable will the online method, you can go to the RTO and submit the required form, make the payment, collect the receipt and get your HSRP number. You can also get the new number plate from your dealer.

    Forms you must fill out for vehicle registration

    Getting a new vehicle registration number may look like a complicated process if you are not aware of the forms that you must fill out.

    You can find all the details on the Parivahan website, and even download the forms from there. Meanwhile, here is the list of forms that you must have for vehicle registration:

    Vehicle Registration Form

    How to Get It/From Where to Download

    Form 20 – Application for motor vehicle registration

    Download it from the Parivahan website

    Form 21 – Vehicle sale certificate. This includes details such as the make and model of the vehicle, date of manufacture, invoice amount etc.

    Get it from the Parivahan website, or ask your dealer for it when buying the vehicle

    Form 22 - Roadworthiness certificate. This indicates the safety and pollution compliance of the vehicle

    Obtain this form from the vehicle dealer

    Form 29 – Vehicle ownership transfer notice

    Download it from the Parivahan website

    Form 30 – Application for intimation and transfer of vehicle ownership

    Download it from the Parivahan website

    Form 34 – Application form to add loan hypothecation and registration certificate

    Download it from the Parivahan website

    Form 38A – Vehicle inspection report

    Obtain this form from the RTO

    Form 51 – Vehicle insurance certificate

    Obtain this form from the car insurance provider

    Form 60 - Working certificate in the absence of PAN card

    Download it from the Parivahan website

    Besides the forms mentioned above, you will have to submit the following documents to the RTO when applying for new car registration:

    • Identity proof
    • Age proof
    • Address proof
    • PAN card (if PAN card is not available, then Form 60)
    • Engine Number and Chassis Number
    • Purchase invoice of the vehicle given by the dealer and the manufacturer
    • Passport size photographs

    Vehicle registration fee

    Listed below are the fees that you may have to pay in association with vehicle registration in India.

    Services Related to Vehicle Registration

    Corresponding Fees in Rs.

    Two-wheeler bike registration/motorcycle


    Three-wheeler/quadricycle registration

    Non-transport: 600; Transport: 1000

    Car/Light Motor Vehicle (LMV)/four-wheeler registration

    Non-transport: 600; Transport: 1000

    Medium goods motor vehicle/medium passenger motor vehicle registration


    Heavy goods motor vehicle/heavy passenger motor vehicle registration


    Imported vehicle (car) registration


    Imported vehicle (bike) registration


    Other vehicles (not mentioned on this list) registration


    Smart card (RC) issue


    Duplicate RC issuance

    50% of the new vehicle registration fees

    RC details correction

    50% of the new vehicle registration fees

    Endorsement of Hypothecation/Lease/Hire purchase

    Two-wheeler (bike): 500;

    Three-wheeler/quadricycle/LMV: 1,500; Medium/heavy vehicle: 3,000

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